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The derivation of structural information from spectroscopic data is now an integral part of organic chemistry courses at all Universities. Over recent years, a number of powerful two-dimensional NMR techniques (e.g. HSQC, HMBC, TOCSY, COSY and NOESY) have been developed and these have vastly expanded the amount of structural information that can be obtained by NMR spectroscopy. Improvements in NMR instrumentation now mean that 2D NMR spectra are routinely (and sometimes automatically) acquired during the identification and characterisation of organic compounds. Organic Structures from 2D NMR Spectra is a carefully chosen set of more than 60 structural problems employing 2D-NMR spectroscopy. The problems are graded to develop and consolidate a student’s understanding of 2D NMR spectroscopy. There are many easy problems at the beginning of the collection, to build confidence and demonstrate the basic principles from which structural information can be extracted using 2D NMR. The accompanying text is very descriptive and focussed on explaining the underlying theory at the most appropriate level to sufficiently tackle the problems. Organic Structures from 2D NMR Spectra Is a graded series of about 60 problems in 2D NMR spectroscopy that assumes a basic knowledge of organic chemistry and a basic knowledge of one-dimensional NMR spectroscopy Incorporates the basic theory behind 2D NMR and those common 2D NMR experiments that have proved most useful in solving structural problems in organic chemistry Focuses on the most common 2D NMR techniques – including COSY, NOESY, HMBC, TOCSY, CH-Correlation and multiplicity-edited C-H Correlation. Incorporates several examples containing the heteronuclei 31P, 15N and 19F Organic Structures from 2D NMR Spectra is a logical follow-on from the highly successful “Organic Structures from Spectra” which is now in its fifth edition. The book will be invaluable for students of Chemistry, Pharmacy, Biochemistry and those taking courses in Organic Chemistry. Also available: Instructors Guide and Solutions Manual to Organic Structures from 2D NMR Spectra
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The derivation of structural information from spectroscopic data is now an integral part of organic chemistry courses at all Universities. A critical part of any such course is a suitable set of problems to develop the student’s understanding of how structures are determined from spectra. Organic Structures from Spectra, Fifth Edition is a carefully chosen set of more than 280 structural problems employing the major modern spectroscopic techniques, a selection of 27 problems using 2D-NMR spectroscopy, more than 20 problems specifically dealing with the interpretation of spin-spin coupling in proton NMR spectra and 8 problems based on the quantitative analysis of mixtures using proton and carbon NMR spectroscopy. All of the problems are graded to develop and consolidate the student’s understanding of organic spectroscopy. The accompanying text is descriptive and only explains the underlying theory at a level which is sufficient to tackle the problems. The text includes condensed tables of characteristic spectral properties covering the frequently encountered functional groups. The examples themselves have been selected to include all important common structural features found in organic compounds and to emphasise connectivity arguments. Many of the compounds were synthesised specifically for this purpose. There are many more easy problems, to build confidence and demonstrate basic principles, than in other collections. The fifth edition of this popular textbook: • includes more than 250 new spectra and more than 25 completely new problems; • now incorporates an expanded suite of new problems dealing with the analysis of 2D NMR spectra (COSY, C H Correlation spectroscopy, HMBC, NOESY and TOCSY); • has been expanded and updated to reflect the new developments in NMR and to retire older techniques that are no longer in common use; • provides a set of problems dealing specifically with the quantitative analysis of mixtures using NMR spectroscopy; • features proton NMR spectra obtained at 200, 400 and 600 MHz and 13C NMR spectra include DEPT experiments as well as proton-coupled experiments; • contains 6 problems in the style of the experimental section of a research paper and two examples of fully worked solutions. Organic Structures from Spectra, Fifth Edition will prove invaluable for students of Chemistry, Pharmacy and Biochemistry taking a first course in Organic Chemistry. Contents Preface Introduction Ultraviolet Spectroscopy Infrared Spectroscopy Mass Spectrometry Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy 2DNMR Problems Index Reviews from earlier editions “Your book is becoming one of the “go to” books for teaching structure determination here in the States. Great work!” “…I would definitely state that this book is the most useful aid to basic organic spectroscopy teaching in existence and I would strongly recommend every instructor in this area to use it either as a source of examples or as a class textbook”. Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry “Over the past year I have trained many students using problems in your book – they initially find it as a task. But after doing 3-4 problems with all their brains activities… working out the rest of the problems become a mania. They get addicted to the problem solving and every time they solve a problem by themselves, their confident level also increases.” “I am teaching the fundamentals of Molecular Spectroscopy and your books represent excellent sources of spectroscopi
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The text Organic Structures from 2D NMR Spectra contains a graded set of structural problems employing 2D-NMR spectroscopy. The Instructors Guide and Solutions Manual to Organic Structures from 2D NMR Spectra is a set of step-by-step worked solutions to every problem in Organic Structures from 2D NMR Spectra. While it is absolutely clear that there are many ways to get to the correct solution of any of the problems, the instructors guide contains at least one complete pathway to every one of the questions. In addition, the instructors guide carefully rationalises every peak in every spectrum in relation to the correct structure. The Instructors Guide and Solutions Manual to Organic Structures from 2D NMR Spectra: Is a complete set of worked solutions to the problems contained in Organic Structures from 2D NMR Spectra. Provides a step-by-step description of the process to derive structures from spectra as well as annotated 2D spectra indicating the origin of every cross peak. Highlights common artefacts and re-enforces the important characteristics of the most common techniques 2D NMR techniques including COSY, NOESY, HMBC, TOCSY, CH-Correlation and multiplicity-edited C-H Correlation. This guide is an essential aid to those teachers, lecturers and instructors who use Organic Structures from 2D NMR as a text to teach students of Chemistry, Pharmacy, Biochemistry and those taking courses in Organic Chemistry.
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This text is aimed at people who have some familiarity with high-resolution NMR and who wish to deepen their understanding of how NMR experiments actually ‘work’. This revised and updated edition takes the same approach as the highly-acclaimed first edition. The text concentrates on the description of commonly-used experiments and explains in detail the theory behind how such experiments work. The quantum mechanical tools needed to analyse pulse sequences are introduced set by step, but the approach is relatively informal with the emphasis on obtaining a good understanding of how the experiments actually work. The use of two-colour printing and a new larger format improves the readability of the text. In addition, a number of new topics have been introduced: How product operators can be extended to describe experiments in AX2 and AX3 spin systems, thus making it possible to discuss the important APT, INEPT and DEPT experiments often used in carbon-13 NMR. Spin system analysis i.e. how shifts and couplings can be extracted from strongly-coupled (second-order) spectra. How the presence of chemically equivalent spins leads to spectral features which are somewhat unusual and possibly misleading, even at high magnetic fields. A discussion of chemical exchange effects has been introduced in order to help with the explanation of transverse relaxation. The double-quantum spectroscopy of a three-spin system is now considered in more detail. Reviews of the First Edition “For anyone wishing to know what really goes on in their NMR experiments, I would highly recommend this book” – Chemistry World “…I warmly recommend for budding NMR spectroscopists, or others who wish to deepen their understanding of elementary NMR theory or theoretical tools” – Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry
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This book describes the use of NMR spectroscopy for dealing with problems of small organic molecule structural elucidation. It features a significant amount of vital chemical shift and coupling information but more importantly, it presents sound principles for the selection of the techniques relevant to the solving of particular types of problem, whilst stressing the importance of extracting the maximum available information from the simple 1-D proton experiment and of using this to plan subsequent experiments. Proton NMR is covered in detail, with a description of the fundamentals of the technique, the instrumentation and the data that it provides before going on to discuss optimal solvent selection and sample preparation. This is followed by a detailed study of each of the important classes of protons, breaking the spectrum up into regions (exchangeables, aromatics, heterocyclics, alkenes etc.). This is followed by consideration of the phenomena that we know can leave chemists struggling; chiral centres, restricted rotation, anisotropy, accidental equivalence, non-first-order spectra etc. Having explained the potential pitfalls that await the unwary, the book then goes on to devote chapters to the chemical techniques and the most useful instrumental ones that can be employed to combat them. A discussion is then presented on carbon-13 NMR, detailing its pros and cons and showing how it can be used in conjunction with proton NMR via the pivotal 2-D techniques (HSQC and HMBC) to yield vital structural information. Some of the more specialist techniques available are then discussed, i.e. flow NMR, solvent suppression, Magic Angle Spinning, etc. Other important nuclei are then discussed and useful data supplied. This is followed by a discussion of the neglected use of NMR as a tool for quantification and new techniques for this explained. The book then considers the safety aspects of NMR spectroscopy, reviewing NMR software for spectral prediction and data handling and concludes with a set of worked Q&As.
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Presents basic concepts, experimental methodology and data acquisition, and processing standards of in vivo NMR spectroscopy This book covers, in detail, the technical and biophysical aspects of in vivo NMR techniques and includes novel developments in the field such as hyperpolarized NMR, dynamic 13C NMR, automated shimming, and parallel acquisitions. Most of the techniques are described from an educational point of view, yet it still retains the practical aspects appreciated by experimental NMR spectroscopists. In addition, each chapter concludes with a number of exercises designed to review, and often extend, the presented NMR principles and techniques. The third edition of In Vivo NMR Spectroscopy: Principles and Techniques has been updated to include experimental detail on the developing area of hyperpolarization; a description of the semi-LASER sequence, which is now a method of choice; updated chemical shift data, including the addition of 31P data; a troubleshooting section on common problems related to shimming, water suppression, and quantification; recent developments in data acquisition and processing standards; and MatLab scripts on the accompanying website for helping readers calculate radiofrequency pulses. Provide an educational explanation and overview of in vivo NMR, while maintaining the practical aspects appreciated by experimental NMR spectroscopists Features more experimental methodology than the previous edition End-of-chapter exercises that help drive home the principles and techniques and offer a more in-depth exploration of quantitative MR equations Designed to be used in conjunction with a teaching course on the subject In Vivo NMR Spectroscopy: Principles and Techniques, 3rd Edition is aimed at all those involved in fundamental and/or diagnostic in vivo NMR, ranging from people working in dedicated in vivo NMR institutes, to radiologists in hospitals, researchers in high-resolution NMR and MRI, and in areas such as neurology, physiology, chemistry, and medical biology.
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NMR is one of the most powerful methods for imaging of biomolecules. This book is the ultimate NMR guide for researchers in the biomedical community and gives not only background and practical tips but also a forward looking view on the future of NMR in systems biology.
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Through numerous examples, the principles of the relationship between chemical structure and the NMR spectrum are developed in a logical, step-by-step fashion Includes examples and exercises based on real NMR data including full 600 MHz one- and two-dimensional datasets of sugars, peptides, steroids and natural products Includes detailed solutions and explanations in the text for the numerous examples and problems and also provides large, very detailed and annotated sets of NMR data for use in understanding the material Describes both simple aspects of solution-state NMR of small molecules as well as more complex topics not usually covered in NMR books such as complex splitting patterns, weak long-range couplings, spreadsheet analysis of strong coupling patterns and resonance structure analysis for prediction of chemical shifts Advanced topics include all of the common two-dimensional experiments (COSY, ROESY, NOESY, TOCSY, HSQC, HMBC) covered strictly from the point of view of data interpretation, along with tips for parameter settings
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Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is one of the most powerful and widely used techniques in chemical research for investigating structures and dynamics of molecules. Advanced methods can even be utilized for structure determinations of biopolymers, for example proteins or nucleic acids. NMR is also used in medicine for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The method is based on spectral lines of different atomic nuclei that are excited when a strong magnetic field and a radiofrequency transmitter are applied. The method is very sensitive to the features of molecular structure because also the neighboring atoms influence the signals from individual nuclei and this is important for determining the 3D-structure of molecules. This new edition of the popular classic has a clear style and a highly practical, mostly non-mathematical approach. Many examples are taken from organic and organometallic chemistry, making this book an invaluable guide to undergraduate and graduate students of organic chemistry, biochemistry, spectroscopy or physical chemistry, and to researchers using this well-established and extremely important technique. Problems and solutions are included.
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This book is dedicated to the formulation and solution of forward and inverse problems related to coupled media, and provides examples of how to solve concrete problems in environmental remote sensing of coupled atmosphere-surface systems. The authors discuss radiative transfer in coupled media such as the atmosphere-ocean system with Lambertian as well non-Lambertian reflecting surfaces at the lower boundary. The spectral range from the ultraviolet to the microwave region of the electromagnetic spectrum is considered, as are multi-spectral as well as hyperspectral remote sensing, while solutions of the forward problem for unpolarized and polarized radiation are discussed in detail.
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Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, a physical phenomenon based upon the magnetic properties of certain atomic nuclei, has found a wide range of applications in life sciences over recent decades. The dramatic advances in NMR techniques have led to corresponding advances in the ability of NMR to study structure, dynamics and interactions of biological macromolecules in solution under close to physiological conditions. This volume focuses on the use of NMR to study proteins. NMR can be used to determine detailed three-dimensional structures of proteins in solution. Furthermore, it provides information about conformational or chemical exchange, internal mobility and dynamics at timescales varying from pcoseconds to seconds. It is the primary technique used to obtain information on intrinsically disordered (unfolded) proteins, since these proteins will not crystallize easily. NMR is also a very powerful method for the study of interactions of protein with other molecules, whether small molecules (including drugs), nuclear acids or other proteins. This up-to-date volume covers NMR techiniques and their application to proteins, with a focus on practical details. This book will provide a newcomer to NMR with the practical guidance in order to carry out successful experiments with proteins and to analyze the resulting spectra. Those who are familiar with the chemical applications of NMR will also find is useful in understanding the special requirements of protien NMR.
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Jetzt in der dritten, uberarbeiteten, erweiterten, deutschsprachigen Auflage! Dieses NMR-Lehrbuch bietet dem Leser eine praxisnahe Hilfe bei der Ubersetzung von NMR-Spektren in die Struktur organischer Verbindungen. Nach einer sehr kurzen theoretischen Einleitung, in der die wichtigsten Begriffe erklart werden, folgt eine Einfuhrung in die Strategie und Taktik der Strukturaufklarung mit NMR-Methoden. Ein Schwerpunkt sind 55 Fallstudien mit Spektren bzw. Spektrenserien abgestuften Schwierigkeitsgrades zum Selbststudium sowie ausfuhrliche Losungsvorschlage zum Nachvollziehen. Neu hinzugekommen sind einige aktuelle zweidimensionale NMR-Experimente der heteronuklearen und homonuklearen Korrelation chemischer Verschiebungen sowie neue Aufgaben zu deren Anwendung. Dieser Klassiker unter den NMR-Lehrbuchern ist unentbehrlich fur jeden, der zur Aufklarung organischer Strukturen die NMR-Spektroskopie anwendet.
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The first and ultimate guide for anyone working in transition organometallic chemistry and related fields, providing the background and practical guidance on how to efficiently work with routine research problems in NMR. The book adopts a problem-solving approach with many examples taken from recent literature to show readers how to interpret the data. Perfect for PhD students, postdocs and other newcomers in organometallic and inorganic chemistry, as well as for organic chemists involved in transition metal catalysis.
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From complex structure elucidation to biomolecular interactions – this applicationoriented textbook covers both theory and practice of modern NMR applications. Part one sets the stage with a general description of NMR introducing important parameters such as the chemical shift and scalar or dipolar couplings. Part two describes the theory behind NMR, providing a profound understanding of the involved spin physics, deliberately kept shorter than in other NMR textbooks, and without a rigorous mathematical treatment of all the physico-chemical computations. Part three discusses technical and practical aspects of how to use NMR. Important phenomena such as relaxation, exchange, or the nuclear Overhauser effects and the methods of modern NMR spectroscopy including multidimensional experiments, solid state NMR, and the measurement of molecular interactions are the subject of part four. The final part explains the use of NMR for the structure determination of selected classes of complex biomolecules, from steroids to peptides or proteins, nucleic acids, and carbohydrates. For chemists as well as users of NMR technology in the biological sciences.
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Combines clear and concise discussions of key NMR concepts with succinct and illustrative examples Designed to cover a full course in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy, this text offers complete coverage of classic (one-dimensional) NMR as well as up-to-date coverage of two-dimensional NMR and other modern methods. It contains practical advice, theory, illustrated applications, and classroom-tested problems; looks at such important ideas as relaxation, NOEs, phase cycling, and processing parameters; and provides brief, yet fully comprehensible, examples. It also uniquely lists all of the general parameters for many experiments including mixing times, number of scans, relaxation times, and more. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: An Introduction to Principles, Applications, and Experimental Methods, 2nd Edition begins by introducing readers to NMR spectroscopy – an analytical technique used in modern chemistry, biochemistry, and biology that allows identification and characterization of organic, and some inorganic, compounds. It offers chapters covering: Experimental Methods; The Chemical Shift; The Coupling Constant; Further Topics in One-Dimensional NMR Spectroscopy; Two-Dimensional NMR Spectroscopy; Advanced Experimental Methods; and Structural Elucidation. Features classical analysis of chemical shifts and coupling constants for both protons and other nuclei, as well as modern multi‐pulse and multi-dimensional methods Contains experimental procedures and practical advice relative to the execution of NMR experiments Includes a chapter-long, worked-out problem that illustrates the application of nearly all current methods Offers appendices containing the theoretical basis of NMR, including the most modern approach that uses product operators and coherence-level diagrams By offering a balance between volumes aimed at NMR specialists and the structure-determination-only books that focus on synthetic organic chemists, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: An Introduction to Principles, Applications, and Experimental Methods, 2nd Edition is an excellent text for students and post-graduate students working in analytical and bio-sciences, as well as scientists who use NMR spectroscopy as a primary tool in their work.
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Diese vollstandig uberarbeitete und aktualisierte Neuauflage des klassischen Lehrbuches beinhaltet neben den Grundlagen der NMR-Spektroskopie auch die der Spektreninterpretation. Ohne viel Mathematik bietet der Text eine Einleitung und deckt somit auch den Lehrstoff von Hochschulkursen ab. Der Hauptanteil des Buches ist nach wie vor der NMR-Spektroskopie an Losungen gewidmet, doch wurden auch verstarkt Untersuchungen an Festkorpern und die Analyse von Biopolymeren berucksichtigt. Zum Schluss werden einige Einsatzmoglichkeiten der Kernspintomographie und der Kombination von Tomographie und Spektroskopie besprochen. Erganzt wurde jedes Kapitel um Aufgaben, deren Losungsvorschlage im Anschluss an Kapitel 14 zu finden sind. Mit seiner ubersichtlichen Darstellung ist dieses Buch ein Muss fur Studenten, Dozenten und Anwender der NMR-Spektroskopie in der Chemie, Biochemie und Pharmazie.
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This book focuses on computational methods for large-scale statistical inverse problems and provides an introduction to statistical Bayesian and frequentist methodologies. Recent research advances for approximation methods are discussed, along with Kalman filtering methods and optimization-based approaches to solving inverse problems. The aim is to cross-fertilize the perspectives of researchers in the areas of data assimilation, statistics, large-scale optimization, applied and computational mathematics, high performance computing, and cutting-edge applications. The solution to large-scale inverse problems critically depends on methods to reduce computational cost. Recent research approaches tackle this challenge in a variety of different ways. Many of the computational frameworks highlighted in this book build upon state-of-the-art methods for simulation of the forward problem, such as, fast Partial Differential Equation (PDE) solvers, reduced-order models and emulators of the forward problem, stochastic spectral approximations, and ensemble-based approximations, as well as exploiting the machinery for large-scale deterministic optimization through adjoint and other sensitivity analysis methods. Key Features: • Brings together the perspectives of researchers in areas of inverse problems and data assimilation. • Assesses the current state-of-the-art and identify needs and opportunities for future research. • Focuses on the computational methods used to analyze and simulate inverse problems. • Written by leading experts of inverse problems and uncertainty quantification. Graduate students and researchers working in statistics, mathematics and engineering will benefit from this book.
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Following its well-received predecessor, this book offers an essential guide to chemists for understanding fluorine in spectroscopy. With over 1000 compounds and 100 spectra, the second edition adds new data – featuring fluorine effects on nitrogen NMR, chemical shifts, and coupling constants. • Explains how to successfully incorporate fluorine into target molecules and utilize fluorine substituents to structurally characterize organic compounds • Includes new data on nitrogen NMR, focusing on N-15, to portray the influence of fluorine upon nitrogen NMR chemical shifts and coupling constants • Expands on each chapter from the first edition with additional data and updated discussion from recent findings • «The flawless ordering of material covered in this stand-alone volume is such that information can be found very easily.» – Angewandte Chemie review of the first edition, 2010
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Presents the theory of NMR enhanced with Mathematica© notebooks Provides short, focused chapters with brief explanations of well-defined topics with an emphasis on a mathematical description Presents essential results from quantum mechanics concisely and for easy use in predicting and simulating the results of NMR experiments Includes Mathematica notebooks that implement the theory in the form of text, graphics, sound, and calculations Based on class tested methods developed by the author over his 25 year teaching career. These notebooks show exactly how the theory works and provide useful calculation templates for NMR researchers
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Digital Spectral Analysis provides a single source that offers complete coverage of the spectral analysis domain. This self-contained work includes details on advanced topics that are usually presented in scattered sources throughout the literature. The theoretical principles necessary for the understanding of spectral analysis are discussed in the first four chapters: fundamentals, digital signal processing, estimation in spectral analysis, and time-series models. An entire chapter is devoted to the non-parametric methods most widely used in industry. High resolution methods are detailed in a further four chapters: spectral analysis by stationary time series modeling, minimum variance, and subspace-based estimators. Finally, advanced concepts are the core of the last four chapters: spectral analysis of non-stationary random signals, space time adaptive processing: irregularly sampled data processing, particle filtering and tracking of varying sinusoids. Suitable for students, engineers working in industry, and academics at any level, this book provides a rare complete overview of the spectral analysis domain.
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So-called string problems are abundant in bioinformatics and computational biology. New optimization problems dealing with DNA or protein sequences are constantly arising and researchers are highly in need of efficient optimization techniques for solving them. One obstacle for optimization practitioners is the atypical nature of these problems which require an interdisciplinary approach in order to solve them efficiently and accurately.
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This book is a new edition of a title originally published in1992. No other book has been published that treats inverse spectral and inverse scattering results by using the so called Poisson summation formula and the related study of singularities. This book presents these in a closed and comprehensive form, and the exposition is based on a combination of different tools and results from dynamical systems, microlocal analysis, spectral and scattering theory. The content of the first edition is still relevant, however the new edition will include several new results established after 1992; new text will comprise about a third of the content of the new edition. The main chapters in the first edition in combination with the new chapters will provide a better and more comprehensive presentation of importance for the applications inverse results. These results are obtained by modern mathematical techniques which will be presented together in order to give the readers the opportunity to completely understand them. Moreover, some basic generic properties established by the authors after the publication of the first edition establishing the wide range of applicability of the Poison relation will be presented for first time in the new edition of the book.
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This book is the perfect link for learning how to perform the experiments after only having studied theory. In eight chapters more than 50 essential NMR experiments are described in detail. Special focus is put on the organic set of NMR spectra (1H, 13C-APT, COSY, NOESY, HSQC and HMBC). Different chapters deal with advanced organic NMR, selective methods, heteronuclear NMR, relaxation and diffusion measurements, organic applications and maintenance. Every experiment has a section providing the reader with the purpose and scope of the specific experiment. Every experiment is concluded with the spectrum as it is obtained under the conditions described. Questions and comments enable the reader to check their understanding. The authors are very experienced and the whole book is in full color, which enhances the reading experience and makes the spectra and other figures easier to understand. This book is strongly recommended for all students and researchers who are involved in the structural elucidation of chemical compounds both in practical education and in pursuing research, in particular if they handle an NMR spectrometer.
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This book presents the basics of the non-invasive geophysical method for groundwater investigation, called Magnetic Resonance Sounding (MRS) or Surface Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (SNMR), and its practical application to the problems of groundwater localization and aquifer characterization. The method is based on the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) phenomenon and is selectively sensitive to groundwater. The main aims of the author are to teach the reader the basic principles of the method as well as to formulate consistent approximate models, leading to reasonably simple inverse problems. Containing an extensive bibliography, numerous practical and numerical examples as well as a detailed presentation of the nuts and bolts of the method based on the long-term experience of SNMR development and practical use, this book is useful for students, scientists and professional engineers working in the field of hydrogeophysics and hydrogeology. Contents 1. SNMR Imaging for Groundwater. 2. The Basics of NMR. 3. Forward Modeling. 4. Inversion. 5. Link Between SNMR and Aquifer Parameters.
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Эта книга — репринт оригинального издания (издательство "Washington : U.S. Govt. Print. Off.", 1933 год), созданный на основе электронной копии высокого разрешения, которую очистили и обработали вручную, сохранив структуру и орфографию оригинального издания. Редкие, забытые и малоизвестные книги, изданные с петровских времен до наших дней, вновь доступны в виде печатных книг.
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Bringing together 18 chapters written by leading experts in dynamical systems, operator theory, partial differential equations, and solid and fluid mechanics, this book presents state-of-the-art approaches to a wide spectrum of new and challenging stability problems. Nonlinear Physical Systems: Spectral Analysis, Stability and Bifurcations focuses on problems of spectral analysis, stability and bifurcations arising in the nonlinear partial differential equations of modern physics. Bifurcations and stability of solitary waves, geometrical optics stability analysis in hydro- and magnetohydrodynamics, and dissipation-induced instabilities are treated with the use of the theory of Krein and Pontryagin space, index theory, the theory of multi-parameter eigenvalue problems and modern asymptotic and perturbative approaches. Each chapter contains mechanical and physical examples, and the combination of advanced material and more tutorial elements makes this book attractive for both experts and non-specialists keen to expand their knowledge on modern methods and trends in stability theory. Contents 1. Surprising Instabilities of Simple Elastic Structures, Davide Bigoni, Diego Misseroni, Giovanni Noselli and Daniele Zaccaria. 2. WKB Solutions Near an Unstable Equilibrium and Applications, Jean-François Bony, Setsuro Fujiié, Thierry Ramond and Maher Zerzeri, partially supported by French ANR project NOSEVOL. 3. The Sign Exchange Bifurcation in a Family of Linear Hamiltonian Systems, Richard Cushman, Johnathan Robbins and Dimitrii Sadovskii. 4. Dissipation Effect on Local and Global Fluid-Elastic Instabilities, Olivier Doaré. 5. Tunneling, Librations and Normal Forms in a Quantum Double Well with a Magnetic Field, Sergey Yu. Dobrokhotov and Anatoly Yu. Anikin. 6. Stability of Dipole Gap Solitons in Two-Dimensional Lattice Potentials, Nir Dror and Boris A. Malomed. 7. Representation of Wave Energy of a Rotating Flow in Terms of the Dispersion Relation, Yasuhide Fukumoto, Makoto Hirota and Youichi Mie. 8. Determining the Stability Domain of Perturbed Four-Dimensional Systems in 1:1 Resonance, Igor Hoveijn and Oleg N. Kirillov. 9. Index Theorems for Polynomial Pencils, Richard Kollár and Radomír Bosák. 10. Investigating Stability and Finding New Solutions in Conservative Fluid Flows Through Bifurcation Approaches, Paolo Luzzatto-Fegiz and Charles H.K. Williamson. 11. Evolution Equations for Finite Amplitude Waves in Parallel Shear Flows, Sherwin A. Maslowe. 12. Continuum Hamiltonian Hopf Bifurcation I, Philip J. Morrison and George I. Hagstrom. 13. Continuum Hamiltonian Hopf Bifurcation II, George I. Hagstrom and Philip J. Morrison. 14. Energy Stability Analysis for a Hybrid Fluid-Kinetic Plasma Model, Philip J. Morrison, Emanuele Tassi and Cesare Tronci. 15. Accurate Estimates for the Exponential Decay of Semigroups with Non-Self-Adjoint Generators, Francis Nier. 16. Stability Optimization for Polynomials and Matrices, Michael L. Overton. 17. Spectral Stability of Nonlinear Waves in KdV-Type Evolution Equations, Dmitry E. Pelinovsky. 18. Unfreezing Casimir Invariants: Singular Perturbations Giving Rise to Forbidden Instabilities, Zensho Yoshida and Philip J. Morrison. About the Authors Oleg N. Kirillov has been a Research Fellow at the Magneto-Hydrodynamics Division of the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf in Germany since 2011. His research interests include non-conservative stability problems of structural mechanics and physics, perturbation theory of non-self-adjoint boundary eigenvalue problems, magnetohydrodynamics, friction-induced oscillations, dissipation-induced instabilities and non-Hermitian problems of optics and microwave physics. Since 2013 he has served as an Associate Editor fo
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This issue contains a collection of papers presented at the 71st Conference on Glass Problems, October 19-20, 2010 at The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. Topics include glass melting; glass science, defects; safety; refractories; recycling; controls; and raw materials.
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The content of this volume has been added to eMagRes (formerly Encyclopedia of Magnetic Resonance) – the ultimate online resource for NMR and MRI. The term «NMR Crystallography» has only recently come into common usage, and even now causes raised eyebrows within some parts of the diffraction community. The power of solid-state NMR to give crystallographic information has considerably increased since the CPMAS suite of techniques was introduced in 1976. In the first years of the 21st century, the ability of NMR to provide information to support and facilitate the analysis of single-crystal and powder diffraction patterns has become widely accepted. Indeed, NMR can now be used to refine diffraction results and, in favorable cases, to solve crystal structures with minimal (or even no) diffraction data. The increasing ability to relate chemical shifts (including the tensor components) to the crystallographic location of relevant atoms in the unit cell via computational methods has added significantly to the practice of NMR crystallography. Diffraction experts will increasingly welcome NMR as an allied technique in their structural analyses. Indeed, it may be that in the future crystal structures will be determined by simultaneously fitting diffraction patterns and NMR spectra. This Handbook is organised into six sections. The first contains an overview and some articles on fundamental NMR topics, followed by a section concentrating on chemical shifts, and one on coupling interactions. The fourth section contains articles describing how NMR results relate to fundamental crystallography concepts and to diffraction methods. The fifth section concerns specific aspects of structure, such as hydrogen bonding. Finally, four articles in the sixth section give applications of NMR crystallography to structural biology, organic & pharmaceutical chemistry, inorganic & materials chemistry, and geochemistry. About EMR Handbooks / eMagRes Handbooks The Encyclopedia of Magnetic Resonance (up to 2012) and eMagRes (from 2013 onward) publish a wide range of online articles on all aspects of magnetic resonance in physics, chemistry, biology and medicine. The existence of this large number of articles, written by experts in various fields, is enabling the publication of a series of EMR Handbooks / eMagRes Handbooks on specific areas of NMR and MRI. The chapters of each of these handbooks will comprise a carefully chosen selection of articles from eMagRes. In consultation with the eMagRes Editorial Board, the EMR Handbooks / eMagRes Handbooks are coherently planned in advance by specially-selected Editors, and new articles are written (together with updates of some already existing articles) to give appropriate complete coverage. The handbooks are intended to be of value and interest to research students, postdoctoral fellows and other researchers learning about the scientific area in question and undertaking relevant experiments, whether in academia or industry. Have the content of this Handbook and the complete content of eMagRes at your fingertips! Visit: www.wileyonlinelibrary.com/ref/eMagRes View other eMagRes publications here
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Presents standard numerical approaches for solving common mathematical problems in engineering using Python. Covers the most common numerical calculations used by engineering students Covers Numerical Differentiation and Integration, Initial Value Problems, Boundary Value Problems, and Partial Differential Equations Focuses on open ended, real world problems that require students to write a short report/memo as part of the solution process Includes an electronic download of the Python codes presented in the book
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The challenges faced by environmental scientists today are vast, complex, and multi-faceted. For instance, predicting the fate of an environmental pollutant or understanding ecosystem responses to climate change, necessitate a firm understanding of molecular structure and dynamics of environmental media as well as the components that exist and interact within this media. Furthermore, linking information obtained at the molecular-scale to ecosystem-level processes is a major pursuit of modern environmental research. As such, NMR spectroscopy and its scalability from the molecular-scale to the macroscopic-scale, is facilitating rapid growth in environmental science. In addition, the versatility of NMR spectroscopy has resulted in the development and implementation of different types of NMR techniques to examine the structure of various types of environmental samples, living and non-living, as well as the study of critical environmental processes. This comprehensive handbook is a collection of chapters that span from methods to how NMR is used in environmental research to gain insight into various ecosystem properties. It is organized into three parts: Part A focuses on methods used in environmental NMR which span from solution-state to magnetic resonance imaging. Part B emphasizes how NMR spectroscopy plays an essential role in understanding various types of environmental components and related processes, including different forms of organic matter found in soil, water, and air as well as how NMR is used to probe the fate of water, organic pollutants, and metals in the environment. Part C focuses on the growing field of environmental metabolomics which uses NMR as its main discovery platform. This volume highlights the immense potential of NMR spectroscopy to expand our fundamental understanding of environmental processes and how it will continue to do so well into the future. About eMagRes Handbooks eMagRes (formerly the Encyclopedia of Magnetic Resonance) publishes a wide range of online articles on all aspects of magnetic resonance in physics, chemistry, biology and medicine. The existence of this large number of articles, written by experts in various fields, is enabling the publication of a series of eMagRes Handbooks on specific areas of NMR and MRI. The chapters of each of these handbooks will comprise a carefully chosen selection of eMagRes articles. In consultation with the eMagRes Editorial Board, the eMagRes handbooks are coherently planned in advance by specially-selected Editors, and new articles are written to give appropriate complete coverage. The handbooks are intended to be of value and interest to research students, postdoctoral fellows and other researchers learning about the scientific area in question and undertaking relevant experiments, whether in academia or industry. Have the content of this handbook and the complete content of eMagRes at your fingertips! Visit: www.wileyonlinelibrary.com/ref/eMagRes
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Explores regular structures in graphs and contingency tables by spectral theory and statistical methods This book bridges the gap between graph theory and statistics by giving answers to the demanding questions which arise when statisticians are confronted with large weighted graphs or rectangular arrays. Classical and modern statistical methods applicable to biological, social, communication networks, or microarrays are presented together with the theoretical background and proofs. This book is suitable for a one-semester course for graduate students in data mining, multivariate statistics, or applied graph theory; but by skipping the proofs, the algorithms can also be used by specialists who just want to retrieve information from their data when analysing communication, social, or biological networks. Spectral Clustering and Biclustering: Provides a unified treatment for edge-weighted graphs and contingency tables via methods of multivariate statistical analysis (factoring, clustering, and biclustering). Uses spectral embedding and relaxation to estimate multiway cuts of edge-weighted graphs and bicuts of contingency tables. Goes beyond the expanders by describing the structure of dense graphs with a small spectral gap via the structural eigenvalues and eigen-subspaces of the normalized modularity matrix. Treats graphs like statistical data by combining methods of graph theory and statistics. Establishes a common outline structure for the contents of each algorithm, applicable to networks and microarrays, with unified notions and principles.
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We know the problems of combinatorics, such as the problem of permutations, combinations, placement, represented by the corresponding formulas. But these formulas only give us the number of solutions, not the solutions themselves. There were no common standard algorithms for solving these types of problems. These types of problems with large numbers can be referred to NP problems. But with the help of Scilab program typical algorithms of such problems are revealed and solutions are given.
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The content of this volume has been added to eMagRes (formerly Encyclopedia of Magnetic Resonance) – the ultimate online resource for NMR and MRI. Over the past 20 years technical developments in superconducting magnet technology and instrumentation have increased the potential of NMR spectroscopy so that it is now possible to study a wide range of solid materials. In addition, one can probe the nuclear environments of many other additional atoms that possess the property of spin. In particular, it is possible to carry out NMR experiments on isotopes that have nuclear spin greater that ½ (i.e. quadrupolar nuclei). Since more that two-thirds of all NMR active isotopes are quadrupolar nuclei, applications of NMR spectroscopy with quadrupolar nuclei are increasing rapidly. The purpose of this handbook is to provide under a single cover the fundamental principles, techniques and applications of quadrupolar NMR as it pertains to solid materials. Each chapter has been prepared by an expert who has made significant contributions to out understanding and appreciation of the importance of NMR studies of quadrupolar nuclei in solids. The text is divided into three sections: The first provides the reader with the background necessary to appreciate the challenges in acquiring and interpreting NMR spectra of quadrupolar neclei in solids. The second presents cutting-edge techniques and methodology for employing these techniques to investigate quadrupolar nuclei in solids. The final section explores applications of solid-state NMR studies of solids ranging from investigations of dynamics, characterizations of biological samples, organic and inorganic materials, porous materials, glasses, catalysts, semiconductors and high-temperature superconductors. About EMR Handbooks / eMagRes Handbooks The Encyclopedia of Magnetic Resonance (up to 2012) and eMagRes (from 2013 onward) publish a wide range of online articles on all aspects of magnetic resonance in physics, chemistry, biology and medicine. The existence of this large number of articles, written by experts in various fields, is enabling the publication of a series of EMR Handbooks / eMagRes Handbooks on specific areas of NMR and MRI. The chapters of each of these handbooks will comprise a carefully chosen selection of articles from eMagRes. In consultation with the eMagRes Editorial Board, the EMR Handbooks / eMagRes Handbooks are coherently planned in advance by specially-selected Editors, and new articles are written (together with updates of some already existing articles) to give appropriate complete coverage. The handbooks are intended to be of value and interest to research students, postdoctoral fellows and other researchers learning about the scientific area in question and undertaking relevant experiments, whether in academia or industry. Have the content of this Handbook and the complete content of eMagRes at your fingertips! Visit: www.wileyonlinelibrary.com/ref/eMagRes View other eMagRes publications here
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The focus of this book is on «ill-posed inverse problems». These problems cannot be solved only on the basis of observed data. The building of solutions involves the recognition of other pieces of a priori information. These solutions are then specific to the pieces of information taken into account. Clarifying and taking these pieces of information into account is necessary for grasping the domain of validity and the field of application for the solutions built. For too long, the interest in these problems has remained very limited in the signal-image community. However, the community has since recognized that these matters are more interesting and they have become the subject of much greater enthusiasm. From the application field’s point of view, a significant part of the book is devoted to conventional subjects in the field of inversion: biological and medical imaging, astronomy, non-destructive evaluation, processing of video sequences, target tracking, sensor networks and digital communications. The variety of chapters is also clear, when we examine the acquisition modalities at stake: conventional modalities, such as tomography and NMR, visible or infrared optical imaging, or more recent modalities such as atomic force imaging and polarized light imaging.
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Лонгслив — цвет: БЕЛЫЙ, пол: МУЖ.
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This book describes the main classical combinatorial problems that can be encountered when designing a logistics network or driving a supply chain. It shows how these problems can be tackled by metaheuristics, both separately and using an integrated approach. A huge number of techniques, from the simplest to the most advanced ones, are given for helping the reader to implement efficient solutions that meet its needs. A lot of books have been written about metaheuristics (methods for solving hard optimization problems) and supply chain management (the field in which we find a huge number of combinatorial optimization problems) in the last decades. So, the main reason of this book is to describe how these methods can be implemented for this class of problems.
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This book aims to help engineers, Masters students and young researchers to understand and gain a general knowledge of logistic systems optimization problems and techniques, such as system design, layout, stock management, quality management, lot-sizing or scheduling. It summarizes the evaluation and optimization methods used to solve the most frequent problems. In particular, the authors also emphasize some recent and interesting scientific developments, as well as presenting some industrial applications and some solved instances from real-life cases. Performance evaluation tools (Petri nets, the Markov process, discrete event simulation, etc.) and optimization techniques (branch-and-bound, dynamic programming, genetic algorithms, ant colony optimization, etc.) are presented first. Then, new optimization methods are presented to solve systems design problems, layout problems and buffer-sizing optimization. Forecasting methods, inventory optimization, packing problems, lot-sizing quality management and scheduling are presented with examples in the final chapters.
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Computational spectroscopy is a rapidly evolving field that is becoming a versatile and widespread tool for the assignment of experimental spectra and their interpretation as related to chemical physical effects. This book is devoted to the most significant methodological contributions in the field, and to the computation of IR, UV-VIS, NMR and EPR spectral parameters with reference to the underlying vibronic and environmental effects. Each section starts with a chapter written by an experimental spectroscopist dealing with present challenges in the different fields; comprehensive coverage of conventional and advanced spectroscopic techniques is provided by means of dedicated chapters written by experts. Computational chemists, analytical chemists and spectroscopists, physicists, materials scientists, and graduate students will benefit from this thorough resource. Bringing together 18 chapters written by leading experts in dynamical systems, operator theory, partial differential equations, and solid and fluid mechanics, this book presents state-of-the-art approaches to a wide spectrum of new and challenging stability problems. Nonlinear Physical Systems: Spectral Analysis, Stability and Bifurcations focuses on problems of spectral analysis, stability and bifurcations arising in the nonlinear partial differential equations of modern physics. Bifurcations and stability of solitary waves, geometrical optics stability analysis in hydro- and magnetohydrodynamics, and dissipation-induced instabilities are treated with the use of the theory of Krein and Pontryagin space, index theory, the theory of multi-parameter eigenvalue problems and modern asymptotic and perturbative approaches. Each chapter contains mechanical and physical examples, and the combination of advanced material and more tutorial elements makes this book attractive for both experts and non-specialists keen to expand their knowledge on modern methods and trends in stability theory. Contents 1. Surprising Instabilities of Simple Elastic Structures, Davide Bigoni, Diego Misseroni, Giovanni Noselli and Daniele Zaccaria. 2. WKB Solutions Near an Unstable Equilibrium and Applications, Jean-François Bony, Setsuro Fujiié, Thierry Ramond and Maher Zerzeri, partially supported by French ANR project NOSEVOL. 3. The Sign Exchange Bifurcation in a Family of Linear Hamiltonian Systems, Richard Cushman, Johnathan Robbins and Dimitrii Sadovskii. 4. Dissipation Effect on Local and Global Fluid-Elastic Instabilities, Olivier Doaré. 5. Tunneling, Librations and Normal Forms in a Quantum Double Well with a Magnetic Field, Sergey Yu. Dobrokhotov and Anatoly Yu. Anikin. 6. Stability of Dipole Gap Solitons in Two-Dimensional Lattice Potentials, Nir Dror and Boris A. Malomed. 7. Representation of Wave Energy of a Rotating Flow in Terms of the Dispersion Relation, Yasuhide Fukumoto, Makoto Hirota and Youichi Mie. 8. Determining the Stability Domain of Perturbed Four-Dimensional Systems in 1:1 Resonance, Igor Hoveijn and Oleg N. Kirillov. 9. Index Theorems for Polynomial Pencils, Richard Kollár and Radomír Bosák. 10. Investigating Stability and Finding New Solutions in Conservative Fluid Flows Through Bifurcation Approaches, Paolo Luzzatto-Fegiz and Charles H.K. Williamson. 11. Evolution Equations for Finite Amplitude Waves in Parallel Shear Flows, Sherwin A. Maslowe. 12. Continuum Hamiltonian Hopf Bifurcation I, Philip J. Morrison and George I. Hagstrom. 13. Continuum Hamiltonian Hopf Bifurcation II, George I. Hagstrom and Philip J. Morrison. 14. Energy Stability Analysis for a Hybrid Fluid-Kinetic Plasma Model, Philip J. Morrison, Emanuele Tassi and Cesare Tronci. 15. Accurate Estimates for the Exponential Decay of Semigroups with Non-Self-Adjoint Generators, Francis Nier. 16. Stability Optimization for Polynomials and Matrices, Michael L. Overton. 17. Spectral Stability of Nonlinear Waves in KdV-Type Evolution Equations, Dmitry E. Pelinovsky. 18. Unfreezing Casimir Invariants: Singular Perturbations Giving Rise to Forbidden Instabilities, Zensho Yoshida and Philip J. Morrison. About the Authors Oleg N. Kirillov has been a Research Fellow at the Magneto-Hydrodynamics Division of the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf in Germany since 2011. His research interests include non-conservative stability problems of structural mechanics and physics, perturbation theory of non-self-adjoint boundary eigenvalue problems, magnetohydrodynamics, friction-induced oscillations, dissipation-induced instabilities and non-Hermitian problems of optics and microwave physics. Since 2013 he has served as an Associate Editor fo