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Praise for the First Edition «…complete, up-to-date coverage of computational complexity theory…the book promises to become the standard reference on computational complexity.» -Zentralblatt MATH A thorough revision based on advances in the field of computational complexity and readers’ feedback, the Second Edition of Theory of Computational Complexity presents updates to the principles and applications essential to understanding modern computational complexity theory. The new edition continues to serve as a comprehensive resource on the use of software and computational approaches for solving algorithmic problems and the related difficulties that can be encountered. Maintaining extensive and detailed coverage, Theory of Computational Complexity, Second Edition, examines the theory and methods behind complexity theory, such as computational models, decision tree complexity, circuit complexity, and probabilistic complexity. The Second Edition also features recent developments on areas such as NP-completeness theory, as well as: A new combinatorial proof of the PCP theorem based on the notion of expander graphs, a research area in the field of computer science Additional exercises at varying levels of difficulty to further test comprehension of the presented material End-of-chapter literature reviews that summarize each topic and offer additional sources for further study Theory of Computational Complexity, Second Edition, is an excellent textbook for courses on computational theory and complexity at the graduate level. The book is also a useful reference for practitioners in the fields of computer science, engineering, and mathematics who utilize state-of-the-art software and computational methods to conduct research. A thorough revision based on advances in the field of computational complexity and readers’feedback, the Second Edition of Theory of Computational Complexity presents updates to theprinciples and applications essential to understanding modern computational complexitytheory. The new edition continues to serve as a comprehensive resource on the use of softwareand computational approaches for solving algorithmic problems and the related difficulties thatcan be encountered.Maintaining extensive and detailed coverage, Theory of Computational Complexity, SecondEdition, examines the theory and methods behind complexity theory, such as computationalmodels, decision tree complexity, circuit complexity, and probabilistic complexity. The SecondEdition also features recent dev
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Cosmic Evolution – The Rise of Complexity in Nature
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In today's global business environment, the intense competition, the changing and uncertain conditions, and the increasing customer's requirements are challenges for the companies' operational efficiency and profitability. In this context, companies highlight the importance of supply chain design and its holistic understanding in order to achieve and sustain competitive strengths. This book analyses supply chains as complex systems, whose performance is characterized by their structural configuration and emergent behaviour. The author analyses the supply chain structure and behaviour within the scope of complexity science. He focuses on supply chain complexity by means of a literature review and an empirical research, which give insights into the impact of complexity on supply chain performance. Moreover, within this book the supply chain is modelled as a complex system by considering the non-linear relationships of its geo-positioned elements. Finally, an agent based model is developed for the generic supply chain simulation, which allows assessing the impact of complexity on supply chain performance and characterizing the behaviour of supply chain designs. The materials presented in this book contribute to the understanding and management of supply chain complexity. This work complements existing complexity frameworks with a holistic analysis of complexity's impact on the performance of supply chain participants and their network. The findings of this work a...
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Nonlinearity, Complexity and Randomness in Economics presents a variety of papers by leading economists, scientists, and philosophers who focus on different aspects of nonlinearity, complexity and randomness, and their implications for economics. A theme of the book is that economics should be based on algorithmic, computable mathematical foundations. Features an interdisciplinary collection of papers by economists, scientists, and philosophers Presents new approaches to macroeconomic modelling, agent-based modelling, financial markets, and emergent complexity Reveals how economics today must be based on algorithmic, computable mathematical foundations
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An insightful view on how to use the power of complexity theory to manage projects more successfully Current management practices require adherence to rigid, global responses unsuitable for addressing the changing needs of most projects. Complexity Theory and Project Management shifts this paradigm to create opportunities for expanding the decision-making process in ways that promote flexibility—and increase effectiveness. It informs readers on the managerial challenges of juggling project requirements, and offers them a clear roadmap on how to revise perspectives and reassess priorities to excel despite having an unpredictable workflow. Complexity Theory and Project Management provides remedies through the use of teaching notes, power point slides, a solutions manual, and a toolbox of answers to common project management problems to illustrate how the deployment of complexity theory can make a project more successful. One of the first books covering the subject of complexity theory for project management, this useful guide: Explains the relationship of complexity theory to virtual project management Supplies techniques, tips, and suggestions for building effective and successful teams in the virtual environment Presents current information about best practices and relevant proactive tools Makes a strong case for including complexity theory in PMI®'s PMBOK® Guide Complexity Theory and Project Management gives a firsthand view on the future of complexity theory as a driving force in the management field, and allows project managers to get a head start in applying its principles immediately to produce more favorable outcomes. (PMI and PMBOK are registered marks of the Project Management Institute, Inc.)
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A groundbreaking look at complexity theory and its implications in the world of finance Complexity theory tells us that processes with a large number of seemingly independent agents-such as free markets-can spontaneously organize themselves into a coherent system. In this fascinating book, Edgar Peters brings together scientific theory, the artistic process, and economics to show how the randomness and uncertainty of complexity theory can be applied to financial markets. Written in an engaging and accessible style, this is a thoughtful, conceptual look at the way free markets are, by their nature, continually evolving complex systems. Expanding on previous explorations of chaos theory, Peters draws on real-life examples ranging from the Asian crisis to America's love of conspiracy to show that complexity and randomness are necessary for the free markets to operate in a competitive manner.
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A volume in Leadership HorizonsSeries Editor Mary Uhl-Bien, University of Nebraska-LincolnFounding Editor James R. Meindl, State University of New York at BuffaloThis book introduces leadership and organizational scholars to the potential of complexityscience for broadening leadership study beyond its traditional focus on leaders' actions andinfluence, to a consideration of leadership as a broader, dynamically and interactive organizingprocess. The book offers a primer on complexity science and its applications to organizationstudies, and compares the logics of complexity science with those underlying traditionalleadership approaches. It describes methodological approaches for studying leadership from acomplexity perspective, and offers examples of applications of complexity science to leadershiptheory. Chapters are written by top scholars in complexity and leadership theory.
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A volume in I.S.C.E. Book Series Managing the ComplexSeries Editors Michael Lissack and Kurt A. Richardson, ISCE Research"The Metis of Projects" addresses veteran project manager Ben Berndt's unease with the use ofestablished (project) management frameworks given their general inefficacy. Despite the use ofthese frameworks, it is estimated that some 30% of projects still fail because they deliver too late,cost more than expected and/or lack quality. Often, projects and their environments are toocomplex to be controlled by rather linear frameworks. Where most practitioners define complexityas "complicated," most academics define complexity (more correctly) as interrelatedness. In recent years, the academic community hasdeveloped several "level-of-complexity frameworks;" however, these frameworks are not commonly known to practitioners and aretherefore not regularly used. And, when examined further, these frameworks appear to be merely environmental scans, used to assessthe level of complexity in the project management environment. But projects also carry inherent complexity; they are socially complex,and it is this social complexity that-paradoxically-needs management. Combined with personality assessments, social networktheory is used here to glean a better understanding of the social complexity in a project. Berndt believes that, following Hugo Leticheand Michael Lissack's emergent coherence concept, managers should steer clear of frameworks i...
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A well-balanced overview of mathematical approaches to complex systems ranging from applications in chemistry and ecology to basic research questions on network complexity. Matthias Dehmer, Abbe Mowshowitz, and Frank Emmert-Streib, well-known pioneers in the fi eld, have edited this volume with a view to balancing classical and modern approaches to ensure broad coverage of contemporary research problems. The book is a valuable addition to the literature and a must-have for anyone dealing with network compleaity and complexity issues.
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Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Geophysical Monograph Series, Volume 196. Extreme Events and Natural Hazards: The Complexity Perspective examines recent developments in complexity science that provide a new approach to understanding extreme events. This understanding is critical to the development of strategies for the prediction of natural hazards and mitigation of their adverse consequences. The volume is a comprehensive collection of current developments in the understanding of extreme events. The following critical areas are highlighted: understanding extreme events, natural hazard prediction and development of mitigation strategies, recent developments in complexity science, global change and how it relates to extreme events, and policy sciences and perspective. With its overarching theme, Extreme Events and Natural Hazards will be of interest and relevance to scientists interested in nonlinear geophysics, natural hazards, atmospheric science, hydrology, oceanography, tectonics, and space weather.
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Bachelor Thesis from the year 2013 in the subject Computer Science - Applied, grade: 2,0, University of Hannover, language: English, abstract: Before elaborating on the complexity of Minesweeper, the basic ideas of complexity theory and the rules of the game shall be introduced. Both subjects should be internalized in order to understand the contents of this bachelor thesis. The basics are learned from: Introduction to the Theory of Complexity by M. Sipser [20], H. Vollmer Skript zur Vorlesung Komplexität von Algorithmen [21] and S. Arora and B. Barak Computational Complexity: A Modern Approach [19].Further, this bachelor thesis will be based upon the main results of these two papers:Minesweeper is NP complete by R. Kaye [1],Minesweeper May Not Be NP-Complete but Is Hard Nonetheless by A. Scott [2].
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This study investigates the impact of storyline complexity and language proficiency level on oral performance. The participants were 42 English learners of different proficiency levels. Each participant was asked to narrate two stories (with or without background events) based on two picture stories. They were given each of the picture prompts one at a time and were told that they had 3 minutes to look at each picture prompt and plan for what to say and how to narrate the story. After that, they had 3-4 minutes to tell each story during which time their performance was recorded. The recorded performances were transcribed and coded to measure the complexity, accuracy, and fluency. The results indicated that syntactic complexity of performance was related to the storyline complexity. Greater storyline complexity also helped high-proficiency learners to perform more fluently. However, it had no significant effect on accuracy. The results further revealed that the high-proficient learners outperformed low-proficient learners. The results also showed that no significant interaction effect of storyline complexity and language proficiency level on oral performance was established.
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This book is about complexity in Information Systems (IS). The subject is addressed from both conceptual and applied perspectives. Concepts are drawn from information theory, industrial design and software engineering. Its content capitalizes on experiences gathered by the authors during various contracting jobs involving software architecture, modeling and IS architecture that were conducted for large organizations in the banking and industry sectors, as well as in the public sector. The authors develop the point of view according to which mastering complexity involves two essential steps: first, one should develop a clear understanding of the real nature of complexity within the IS; second, one should identify the primary causes which contribute to its uncontrolled growth and organize these into a logical framework, in order to define efficient countermeasures. Both technical and psychological causes of complexity are to be considered. Two themes make up the main thread of the book: complexity and value. Both themes are quite common when considered separately, but their interplay remains a largely unexplored topic. The analysis of this interplay is one of the sources of originality of this book.
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Masterarbeit aus dem Jahr 2011 im Fachbereich BWL - Unternehmensführung, Management, Organisation, Note: 1.3, Hochschule Albstadt-Sigmaringen; Sigmaringen, Sprache: Deutsch, Abstract: Executive SummaryComplexity is one of the most misused expressions of recent years. Corporations use it however, do not understand the full and comprehensive meaning behind it. In many English speaking countries Management aims on reducing complexity in such form. Diverging from that position is a new looks onto Management. Mostly established and developed in German speaking countries, a form of Management started to become recognized which focuses on accepting complexity in its pure form. Therefore, Man-agement needs to search for ways and opportunities where complexity can be used to build structural advantages. The Systemic Management approach emerged from these requirements and points out opportunities how complexity can be fully acknowledged and handled. This different view on complexity will be introduced and discussed in the following thesis. For a better understanding of the basics of this approach it is neces-sary to start with a comprehensive overview of the essential ideas of cybernetics, the science of directing and steering. Afterwards an introduction of methods for dealing with complexity will take place. To show the variety of systemic approaches, three theories will shortly be discussed. Grounding on the St. Galler approach the Malik Management design, as one of the most theoreti...
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A collection of scholarly essays, Complexity Theory and the Philosophy of Education provides an accessible theoretical introduction to the topic of complexity theory while considering its broader implications for educational change. Explains the contributions of complexity theory to philosophy of education, curriculum, and educational research Brings together new research by an international team of contributors Debates issues ranging from the culture of curriculum, to the implications of work of key philosophers such as Foucault and John Dewey for educational change Demonstrates how social scientists and social and education policy makers are drawing on complexity theory to answer questions such as: why is it that education decision-makers are so resistant to change; how does change in education happen; and what does it take to make these changes sustainable? Considers changes in use of complexity theory; developed principally in the fields of physics, biology, chemistry, and economics, and now being applied more broadly to the social sciences and to the study of education
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Research Paper (undergraduate) from the year 2009 in the subject Business economics - Business Management, Corporate Governance, Technical University of Berlin, language: English, abstract: Strategic Foresight is a relatively young field of research. Although, plenty of different definitions, recommended methods or process approaches exist. Based on a literature review, this thesis tries to systemize the literature to shed light onto the current state of research.Strategic Foresight, as a part of the strategic management, should be strongly related to one of the basic models of strategic management. The targeted object will be building a bridge to one of the most popular and practical models invented by Porter. Still today, there are no approaches that combine Porter's Five Forces with Strategic Foresight.In the literature, often the impact of complexity and dynamics is discussed in regard to Strategic Foresight, but a certain model to evaluate and measure complexity does not exist yet. Neither organizational nor environmental complexity has been included in current Strategic Foresight literature. After analyzing, systemizing, defining, and merging both models by dint of Strategic Foresight considerations, the development of a complexity model will accomplishthe attempt to provide a holistic approach to measure complexity in regard to Strategic Foresight for further research.
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A major challenge of our times is to understand and manage the increasing complexity of socio-economic reality. This has immediate relevance for sustainable development. The impact of recent contributions from systems and complexity sciences in addressing this issue has not filtered down into effective practice — notably, there remain problems caused by the legacy of competing paradigms and the application of their associated methodologies. This book argues the urgency for the application of analytical tools that embody the principles of complexity management. The authors describe a theoretical framework based on complexity science with a focus on organisational and second order cybernetics, one that presents a powerful new insight into the concept of sustainability. The book also describes actual applications of the ideas in the area of organisational, societal and environmental management, and reflects upon the impact of such an approach on current practice.
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MIVAR: Transition from Productions to Bipartite Graphs MIVAR Nets and Practical Realization of Automated Constructor of Algorithms Handling More than Three Million Production Rules. The theoretical transition from the graphs of production systems to the bipartite graphs of the MIVAR nets is shown. Examples of the implementation of the MIVAR nets in the formalisms of matrixes and graphs are given. The linear computational complexity of algorithms for automated building of objects and rules of the MIVAR nets is theoretically proved. On the basis of the MIVAR nets the UDAV software complex is developed, handling more than 1.17 million objects and more than 3.5 million rules on ordinary computers. The results of experiments that confirm a linear computational complexity of the MIVAR method of information processing are given.
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KNOWING WHAT TO LOOK FOR IS HALF OF THE BATTLE AND SOMETIMES WE UNDERESTIMATE THE THE SIMPLICITY OF COMPLEXITY
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Do genes explain life? Can advances in evolutionary and molecular biology account for what we look like, how we behave, and why we die? In this powerful intervention into current biological thinking, Brian Goodwin argues that such genetic reductionism has important limits. Drawing on the sciences of complexity, the author shows how an understanding of the self-organizing patterns of networks is necessary for making sense of nature. Genes are important, but only as part of a process constrained by environment, physical laws, and the universal tendencies of complex adaptive systems. In a new preface for this edition, Goodwin reflects on the advances in both genetics and the sciences of complexity since the book's original publication.
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Teaching without Testing: Assessing the Complexity of Children’s Literacy Learning by Denny Taylor is the second book in Garn Press Women Scholars Series. This book revisits Taylor’s seminal and influential work based on her Biographic Literacy Profiles Project. Teaching without Testing: Assessing the Complexity of Children’s Literacy Learning is a timely book that challenges the scientific assumptions of standardized testing in developing effective instruction to meet the literate lives of all students. Through detailed observations of student learning, Taylor encourages readers to consider alternative ways of assessing children’s reading and writing based on observable literacy behaviors. Supporting a humanistic perspective to the education of children, Taylor argues that standardized and diagnostic methods of assessment and teaching, based on test-driven, cooperate-led accountability practices, have detrimental effects on children and result in the de-professionalization of teachers.
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Studienarbeit aus dem Jahr 2009 im Fachbereich BWL - Unternehmensführung, Management, Organisation, Note: 1,7, Technische Universität Berlin, Sprache: Deutsch, Abstract: LiteraturverzeichnisLiteraturverzeichnis IAbkürzungsverzeichnis IIIAbbildungsverzeichnis IVTabellenverzeichnis V1 Einleitung 12 Theoretische Grundlagen 22.1 Von der Erfolgsmessung zur Balanced Scorecard 22.1.1 Klassische Kennzahlensysteme 32.1.2 Performance‐Measurement‐System 42.1.3 Die Balanced Scorecard 62.2 Komplexität 72.2.1 Definition 72.2.2 Treiber und Simplifier 82.2.3 Die vier Dimensionen der Komplexitätsmessung 112.3 Das Konstrukt der BCSC 113 BCSC am Beispiel der Volkswagen AG 133.1 Strategie und Zielsetzung 133.2 Ausgewählte Perspektiven für die Bewertungsmethode 163.3 Ausgewählte Kennzahlen für die Volkswagen Scorecard 203.3.1 Ausgewählte Kennzahlen für die Innovationsperspektive 203.3.2 Ausgewählte Kennzahlen für die Prozessperspektive 223.3.3 Ausgewählte Kennzahlen für die Stakeholder‐Perspektive 243.3.4 Ausgewählte Kennzahlen für die Finanzperspektive 253.3.5 Zusammenführung der Kennzahlen zur Balanced Complexity Scorecard 274 Zusammenfassung und Fazit 28Anhang 31A. 1 Balanced Complexity Scorecard der Volkswagen AG 31Literaturverzeichnis IV
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The use of physically complex models is limited due to complexity in the measuring some of the parameters and calibrating others. The parameterization of these models is a very difficult task. To run the complex model for a single simulation can take a few hours to a few days, depending on simulation period and complexity of the model. The information contained in a time series is not uniformly distributed. So if we can find out the critical events which are important for identification of parameters, we can make parameterization easy for complex models. This methodology is effective in reducing time for simulation and complexity.
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Starting with an updated description of Allen's calculus, the book proceeds with a description of the main qualitative calculi which have been developed over the last two decades. It describes the connection of complexity issues to geometric properties. Models of the formalisms are described using the algebraic notion of weak representations of the associated algebras. The book also includes a presentation of fuzzy extensions of qualitative calculi, and a description of the study of complexity in terms of clones of operations.
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This second, extended and updated edition presents the current state of kinetics of chemical reactions, combining basic knowledge with results recently obtained at the frontier of science. Special attention is paid to the problem of the chemical reaction complexity with theoretical and methodological concepts illustrated throughout by numerous examples taken from heterogeneous catalysis combustion and enzyme processes. Of great interest to graduate students in both chemistry and chemical engineering.
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Document from the year 2009 in the subject Business economics - Business Management, Corporate Governance, , course: Business Management: Strategic Management, 65 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: This report shows famous managemnt approaches that deal with the complexity of the company's situation. Not only the environement, but also the company's show a rising complexity. Economists and businessmen try to manage this complexity since several years. For example they reduced it for easier analysis, but this way many important relationships of the processes were left unconsidered and some of the recommendations could be wrong. To avoid the destruction of important relationships some economists tried to keep complexity. But that made analysis very complicated. some of the early approaches should be shown here to present the development of complex thinking in business management. The analysis portrays the characteristics of companies interpreted as complex systems.
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A volume in I.S.C.E Book Series: Managing the ComplexSeries Editors Kurt Richardson and Michael Lissack, ISCE ResearchIn this volume, Hugo Letiche tackles the all-important question, is there "care" in healthcare? If, as Klaus Krippendorff(2006) argues, "meaning is a structured space, a network of expected senses, a set of possibilities.[that] emerges in the use of language," then within the healthcare systems of today, the meaning of "care" hasbeen defined to be the eradication of a problem. We must recognize that patients do not wish to regarded merelyas a problem requiring eradication.Letiche is opposed to the very idea that complexity reduction can address the humanity of each individual healthcaresituation. He argues that, through narratives and through complexity based social theory, the complexity ofeach individual situation must be transcended through mindful listening and engaged dialogue. Letiche suggeststhat in the absence of such mindfulness, the lack of time for true listening, and the inability of providers and systemsto allow for patients and family to engage in dialogue lies both the roots of the problem and the potential forits solution. If complexity theory has a role in the analysis understanding and betterment of so
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Uniquely reflects an engineering view to social systems in a wide variety of contexts of application Social Systems Engineering: The Design of Complexity brings together a wide variety of application approaches to social systems from an engineering viewpoint. The book defines a social system as any complex system formed by human beings. Focus is given to the importance of systems intervention design for specific and singular settings, the possibilities of engineering thinking and methods, the use of computational models in particular contexts, and the development of portfolios of solutions. Furthermore, this book considers both technical, human and social perspectives, which are crucial to solving complex problems. Social Systems Engineering: The Design of Complexity provides modelling examples to explore the design aspect of social systems. Various applications are explored in a variety of areas, such as urban systems, health care systems, socio-economic systems, and environmental systems. It covers important topics such as organizational design, modelling and intervention in socio-economic systems, participatory and/or community-based modelling, application of systems engineering tools to social problems, applications of computational behavioral modeling, computational modelling and management of complexity, and more. Highlights an engineering view to social systems (as opposed to a “scientific” view) that stresses the importance of systems intervention design for specific and singular settings Divulges works where the design, re-design, and transformation of social systems constitute the main aim, and where joint considerations of both technical and social perspectives are deemed important in solving social problems Features an array of applied cases that illustrate the application of social systems engineering in different domains Social Systems Engineering: The Design of Complexity is an excellent text for academics and graduate students in engineering and social science—specifically, economists, political scientists, anthropologists, and management scientists with an interest in finding systematic ways to intervene and improve social systems.
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Inhaltsangabe:Abstract: We are facing an increasing bandwidth in the mobile systems and this opens up for new applications in a mobile terminal. It will be possible to download, record, send and receive images and videosequences. Even if we have more bandwidth, images and video data must be compressed before it can be sent, because of the amount of information it contains. MPEG-4 and H.263 are standards for compression of video data. The problem is that encoding and decoding algorithms are computationally intensive and complexity increases with the size of the video. In mobile applications, processing capabilities such as memory space and calculation time are limited and optimized algorithms for decoding and encoding are necessary. The question is if it is possible to encode raw video data with low complexity. Single frames e.g. from a digital camera, can then be coded and transmitted as a video sequence. On the other hand, the decoder needs to be able to handle sequences with different resolution. Thus, decoder in new mobile terminals must decode higher resolution sequences with the same complexity as low resolution video requires. The work will involve literature studies of MPEG-4 and H.263. The goal is to investigate the possibility to encode video data with low complexity and to find a way for optimized downscaling of larger sequences in a decoder. The work should include - Literature studies of MPEG-4 and H.263. - Theoretical study how CIF sequences (352x288-pixel) can b...
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Geo-mathematical modelling: models from complexity science Sir Alan Wilson, Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis, University College London Mathematical and computer models for a complexity science tool kit Geographical systems are characterised by locations, activities at locations, interactions between them and the infrastructures that carry these activities and flows. They can be described at a great variety of scales, from individuals and organisations to countries. Our understanding, often partial, of these entities, and in many cases this understanding is represented in theories and associated mathematical models. In this book, the main examples are models that represent elements of the global system covering such topics as trade, migration, security and development aid together with examples at finer scales. This provides an effective toolkit that can not only be applied to global systems, but more widely in the modelling of complex systems. All complex systems involve nonlinearities involving path dependence and the possibility of phase changes and this makes the mathematical aspects particularly interesting. It is through these mechanisms that new structures can be seen to ‘emerge’, and hence the current notion of ‘emergent behaviour’. The range of models demonstrated include account-based models and biproportional fitting, structural dynamics, space-time statistical analysis, real-time response models, Lotka-Volterra models representing ‘war’, agent-based models, epidemiology and reaction-diffusion approaches, game theory, network models and finally, integrated models. Geo-mathematical modelling: Presents mathematical models with spatial dimensions. Provides representations of path dependence and phase changes. Illustrates complexity science using models of trade, migration, security and development aid. Demonstrates how generic models from the complexity science tool kit can each be applied in a variety of situations This book is for practitioners and researchers in applied mathematics, geography, economics, and interdisciplinary fields such as regional science and complexity science. It can also be used as the basis of a modelling course for postgraduate students.
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This books addresses the problem of identifying and managing extreme social events, X-Events, that propel human progress. These include stock-market crashes, climate change, revolution, and much more. It is shown that X-Events are are a natural and necessary part of the human condition.
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Electrical plants onboard modern cruise ships and offshore rigs have nowadays reached a size and complexity comparable or even superior to big industrial plants and power plants.The continuous increase of the size of ships and the generally accepted ado
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From the eccentric museum La Specola in Florence comes this amazing collection of waxworks depicting human anatomy in all its dazzling complexity. A selection of wax bodies...
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Mansfield Park themes are very different from those of other books Jane Austen. A novel can be attributed to the depth and complexity of the themes and to the main character—a young woman who is unlike most heroines found in literature.
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From Simplicity To Complexity, Everything has a reason for happening. While Fantasy is wrapped in Rainbows, Reality is different. From Philosophy To Atavistic Incentives, We discuss a variety of different scenarios and topics that exhibit true testaments of tenacity.
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The Ethereal Theatre is an experimental poetry project where every poem represents a specific style of dance. From ballet, tap, jazz, modern, salsa, and hip-hop beauty and complexity are given unique forms. All of which are held in a theatre of the imagination.
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Mark Rothko's awe-inspiring yet deceptively simple, iconic colour field paintings belie the mythical and emotional complexity behind them. Rothko put his heart and...
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Political Science has traditionally employed empirical research and analytical resources to understand, explain and predict political phenomena. One of the long-standing criticisms against empirical modeling targets the static perspective provided by the model-invariant paradigm. In political science research, this issue has a particular relevance since political phenomena prove sophisticated degrees of context-dependency whose complexity could be hardly captured by traditional approaches. To cope with the complexity challenge, a new modeling paradigm was needed. This book is concerned with this challenge. Moreover, the book aims to reveal the power of computational modeling of political attitudes to reinforce the political methodology in facing two fundamental challenges: political culture modeling and polity modeling. The book argues that an artificial polity model as a powerful research instrument could hardly be effective without the political attitude and, by extension, the political culture computational and simulation modeling theory, experiments and practice. This book: Summarizes the state of the art in computational modeling of political attitudes, with illustrations and examples featured throughout. Explores the different approaches to computational modeling and how the complexity requirements of political science should determine the direction of research and evaluation methods. Addresses the newly emerging discipline of computational political science. Discusses modeling paradigms, agent-based modeling and simulation, and complexity-based modeling. Discusses model classes in the fundamental areas of voting behavior and decision-making, collective action, ideology and partisanship, emergence of social uprisings and civil conflict, international relations, allocation of public resources, polity and institutional function, operation, development and reform, political attitude formation and change in democratic societies. This book is ideal for students who need a conceptual and operational description of the political attitude computational modeling phases, goals and outcomes in order to understand how political attitudes could be computationally modeled and simulated. Researchers, Governmental and international policy experts will also benefit from this book.
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A world model: economies, trade, migration, security and development aid. This bookprovides the analytical capability to understand and explore the dynamics of globalisation. It is anchored in economic input-output models of over 200 countries and their relationships through trade, migration, security and development aid. The tools of complexity science are brought to bear and mathematical and computer models are developed both for the elements and for an integrated whole. Models are developed at a variety of scales ranging from the global and international trade through a European model of inter-sub-regional migration to piracy in the Gulf and the London riots of 2011. The models embrace the changing technology of international shipping, the impacts of migration on economic development along with changing patterns of military expenditure and development aid. A unique contribution is the level of spatial disaggregation which presents each of 200+ countries and their mutual interdependencies – along with some finer scale analyses of cities and regions. This is the first global model which offers this depth of detail with fully work-out models, these provide tools for policy making at national, European and global scales. Global dynamics: Presents in depth models of global dynamics. Provides a world economic model of 200+ countries and their interactions through trade, migration, security and development aid. Provides pointers to the deployment of analytical capability through modelling in policy development. Features a variety of models that constitute a formidable toolkit for analysis and policy development. Offers a demonstration of the practicalities of complexity science concepts. This book is for practitioners and policy analysts as well as those interested in mathematical model building and complexity science as well as advanced undergraduate and postgraduate level students.
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A comprehensive guide to the theory, methodology, and development for modeling systems of systems Modeling and Managing Interdependent Complex Systems of Systems examines the complexity of, and the risk to, emergent interconnected and interdependent complex systems of systems in the natural and the constructed environment, and in its critical infrastructures. For systems modelers, this book focuses on what constitutes complexity and how to understand, model and manage it.Previous modeling methods for complex systems of systems were aimed at developing theory and methodologies for uncoupling the interdependencies and interconnections that characterize them. In this book, the author extends the above by utilizing public- and private- sector case studies; identifies, explores, and exploits the core of interdependencies; and seeks to understand their essence via the states of the system, and their dominant contributions to the complexity of systems of systems. The book proposes a reevaluation of fundamental and practical systems engineering and risk analysis concepts on complex systems of systems developed over the past 40 years. This important resource: Updates and streamlines systems engineering theory, methodology, and practice as applied to complex systems of systems Introduces modeling methodology inspired by philosophical and conceptual thinking from the arts and sciences Models the complexity of emergent interdependent and interconnected complex systems of systems by analyzing their shared states, decisions, resources, and decisionmakers Written for systems engineers, industrial engineers, managers, planners, academics and other professionals in engineering systems and the environment,this text is the resource for understanding the fundamental principles of modeling and managing complex systems of systems, and the risk thereto.
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Combinatorial optimization is a multidisciplinary scientific area, lying in the interface of three major scientific domains: mathematics, theoretical computer science and management. The three volumes of the Combinatorial Optimization series aims to cover a wide range of topics in this area. These topics also deal with fundamental notions and approaches as with several classical applications of combinatorial optimization. Concepts of Combinatorial Optimization, is divided into three parts: On the complexity of combinatorial optimization problems, that presents basics about worst-case and randomized complexity; Classical solution methods, that presents the two most-known methods for solving hard combinatorial optimization problems, that are Branch-and-Bound and Dynamic Programming; Elements from mathematical programming, that presents fundamentals from mathematical programming based methods that are in the heart of Operations Research since the origins of this field.
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Combinatorial optimization is a multidisciplinary scientific area, lying in the interface of three major scientific domains: mathematics, theoretical computer science and management. The three volumes of the Combinatorial Optimization series aim to cover a wide range of topics in this area. These topics also deal with fundamental notions and approaches as with several classical applications of combinatorial optimization. Concepts of Combinatorial Optimization, is divided into three parts: – On the complexity of combinatorial optimization problems, presenting basics about worst-case and randomized complexity; – Classical solution methods, presenting the two most-known methods for solving hard combinatorial optimization problems, that are Branch-and-Bound and Dynamic Programming; – Elements from mathematical programming, presenting fundamentals from mathematical programming based methods that are in the heart of Operations Research since the origins of this field.
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Complexity is an intrinsic property of natural systems. In the oceanic system, it is linked to many interactions with the atmosphere, geosphere and biosphere with which it exchanges energy and matter. Complexity of the ocean system has, at different spatial and temporal scales, hydrodynamic mechanisms of these exchanges and dynamics of elements and compounds, they are involved in biogeochemical cycles or used as tracers. By its pedagogical approach, it defines the terms, methods, techniques and analytical tools used. Then, it analyzes the consequences of climate change, future projections, human impact and the concept introduced with planktonic pelagic ecosystem component
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Document from the year 2015 in the subject Business economics - Business Ethics, Corporate Ethics, grade: 1,5, Stellenbosch Universitiy (Sustainability Institute Lynedoch, School of Public Leadership), course: Leadership and Environmental Ethics, language: English, abstract: With increasing complexity of the known world, companies and individuals struggle more and more to understand how they can take part and what their role is. This especially applies to the CEOs and Executives of the corporate industry that slowly have to acknowledge that their old models do not work as well anymore. In this paper, the author looks at the meaning of play and how children can be powerful role models to adjust our way of doing business. A case study and personal reflection this work brings this work to culmination.
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2014 Reprint of Original 1960 Edition. Exact facsimile of the original edition, not reproduced with Optical Recognition Software. Most of Berlyne's research and writing focused on the effects of and reactions to curiosity and arousal. His work focused on "why organisms display curiosity and explore their environment, why they seek knowledge and information". He believed that objects impact on three levels, psychophysical, environmental, and collative. The last of these was a term coined by Berlyne which attempted to describe the hedonic levels of arousal fluctuation through stimuli such as novelty, complexity, the element of surprise and incongruity. Ultimately, he believed that arousal was best and most effective when at a moderate level and influenced by the complexity and novelty of the arousing object. His work remains influential to this day.
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One of the main problems of quantitative study of proofs is speed-up phenomenon, that is a situation, where two systems are compared such that some theorems have much shorter proof in one of them. For the first time such problem on the proof steps was considered for arithmetical systems by Gödel. Now many results in this field are well-known. In all of them by comparison of two systems for every recursive function φ can be pointed one formula or infinite set of formula, which has φ speed-up. We introduce the common notion of proof complexity (by analogy to Blum computational complexity), the notion of ordinary theory and formulate some conditions for any pair of theory, which are enough for possibility of the most generalized (Rabin style) speed-up, i.e. for arbitrary general recursive function φ there exists n0 such that for every n>n0 there is provable in both theories formula βφn such that its proof complexity in "stronger" theory is no more than n and in the "weaker" theory is greater than φ(n). Many pair systems with above conditions are considered as well as the constructive description of "hard" provable formulas for some pair systems is given.
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2012 Reprint of Volumes One and Two, 1957-1961. Exact facsimile of the original edition, not reproduced with Optical Recognition Software. A. N. Kolmogorov was a Soviet mathematician, preeminent in the 20th century, who advanced various scientific fields, among them probability theory, topology, logic, turbulence, classical mechanics and computational complexity. Later in life Kolmogorov changed his research interests to the area of turbulence, where his publications beginning in 1941 had a significant influence on the field. In classical mechanics, he is best known for the Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser theorem. In 1957 he solved a particular interpretation of Hilbert's thirteenth problem (a joint work with his student V. I. Arnold). He was a founder of algorithmic complexity theory, often referred to as Kolmogorov complexity theory, which he began to develop around this time. Based on the authors' courses and lectures, this two-part advanced-level text is now available in a single volume. Topics include metric and normed spaces, continuous curves in metric spaces, measure theory, Lebesque intervals, Hilbert space, and more. Each section contains exercises. Lists of symbols, definitions, and theorems.
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Combinatorial optimization is a multidisciplinary scientific area, lying in the interface of three major scientific domains: mathematics, theoretical computer science and management. The three volumes of the Combinatorial Optimization series aim to cover a wide range of topics in this area. These topics also deal with fundamental notions and approaches as with several classical applications of combinatorial optimization. Concepts of Combinatorial Optimization, is divided into three parts: – On the complexity of combinatorial optimization problems, presenting basics about worst-case and randomized complexity; – Classical solution methods, presenting the two most-known methods for solving hard combinatorial optimization problems, that are Branch-and-Bound and Dynamic Programming; – Elements from mathematical programming, presenting fundamentals from mathematical programming based methods that are in the heart of Operations Research since the origins of this field.
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A volume in Research in Management ConsultingSeries Editor Anthony F. Buono, Bentley UniversityThe tenth volume in the Research on Management Consulting series-Client-ConsultantCollaboration: Coping with Complexity and Change-draws on papers presented at theAcademy of Management's Management Consulting Division International Conferenceon this theme in Copenhagen, Denmark in June 2007. The volume presents twelve chaptersthat explore a broad range of questions and concerns that illustrate the scope andcomplexity of the consultant-client relationship. The chapters illustrate the richness and excitement that takes place notonly in research on consulting but also in its application as the various empirical analyses of consulting in practice portray.
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Feedback Loop is an introduction to the ideas underlying recent experimentation with complexity in architecture. It presents key concepts such as prototyping, non-linear order, emergence, bottom-up thinking, parametric thinking, generative scripting and biomorphism, and it does so in plain language for students of architecture and others who seek an entry point into the discussion of recent design work. Many of these ideas, which arose in other fields of study, are interpreted architecturally, in order to help designers leverage them in the creative act. By showing how the key concepts work together to define a coherent view of architecture, Feedback Loop supports the conclusion that the pursuit of complexity is poised to expand beyond the avant-garde to become a broad-scoped, long-term architectural movement.
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Combinatorial optimization is a multidisciplinary scientific area, lying in the interface of three major scientific domains: mathematics, theoretical computer science and management. The three volumes of the Combinatorial Optimization series aim to cover a wide range of topics in this area. These topics also deal with fundamental notions and approaches as with several classical applications of combinatorial optimization. Concepts of Combinatorial Optimization, is divided into three parts: – On the complexity of combinatorial optimization problems, presenting basics about worst-case and randomized complexity; – Classical solution methods, presenting the two most-known methods for solving hard combinatorial optimization problems, that are Branch-and-Bound and Dynamic Programming; – Elements from mathematical programming, presenting fundamentals from mathematical programming based methods that are in the heart of Operations Research since the origins of this field.
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Seismic risk management is concerned with complexity of diverse impacts and sorts of uncertainties involved in modeling, assessing and managing the earthquake risk. The way to handle uncertainty is a critical challenge in risk management and can mislead the overall decisions particularly in seismic risk mitigation programs where several projects are involved. Emergent complexity and uncertainties necessitate establishing a risk management system to address the risk in a reliable and realistic way. Current research proposes a heuristic model that combines both theoretically well-grounded system approach and risk analysis on a common framework. Hierarchical system approach is proposed to reduce the complexity of the risk inventory and turn it to set of manageable sub-systems. To capture uncertainties associated with observation and expert judgments, fuzzy modeling techniques was used. The applicability of the proposed models was tested over a group of retrofitting schools. Unlike conventional risk assessment methods, the methodology demonstrated more transparency and flexibility in practice.
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Research Paper (undergraduate) from the year 2007 in the subject Business economics - Miscellaneous, grade: 2, Vienna University of Economics and Business (Department of Human Resource Management), course: International Human Resource Management, language: English, abstract: In early 2006, PricewaterhouseCoopers ('PwC') published the latest edition of its Annual Global CEO Survey ('the PwC survey'). This year, more than 1,400 CEOs were interviewed to find out about what is at the top of their mind, focussing on the current topics globalization and complexity with a special emphasis on emerging markets like Brazil, Russia, India and China ('BRIC'). In addition to the data compiled by PwC, the PwC survey also presents in-depth interviews with five CEOs of multinational enterprises, offering insights into their personal way of dealing with globalization and managing complexity within their organizations.The authors have structured this paper into the following three parts:Part 1 critically examines the PwC survey in various aspects and presents three types of shortcomings that have been discovered (content-related, author-related, methodology-related).Part 2 deals with the PwC survey's implications for the role of corporate human resource management ('HRM') in multinational enterprises, examining changing forces in the global economy and linking them to the HRM function.Part 3 explores the impact of globalization and complexity on current inte...
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The impact of modern Arab poets, in particular in language and imagery and consequently, the emergence of alternative ideologies on young Bahraini poets, was indelible. It is, therefore, the explicit political pronouncements coupled with the complexity of language and imagery that initiated the rise of contemporary Bahraini poetry.
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Rest from the rigors of life and traipse into lush summer. Coax fairies, dragons, and flowers to life as you color 20 pages of beautiful hand-drawn artwork.Image complexity ranges from wide open summer blooms to thick inky jungle. Explore a beautiful, flowering world that's waiting to delight you.
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An essential guide to studying symmetrical component theory Provides concise treatment of symmetrical components Describes major sequence models of power system components Discusses Electromagnetic Transient Program (EMTP) models Includes worked examples to illustrate the complexity of calculations, followed by matrix methods of solution which have been adopted for calculations on digital computers
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COUSIN PHILLIS (1863) by Elizabeth Gaskell is a deceptively simple story of budding young love and its disappointment, as observed through the eyes of a young man who comes to stay with his Cousin Phillis and her family.Gaskell is at the height of her form in this elegant classic novella of British Victorian family relationships, affections and complexity.
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Scientific Essay from the year 2006 in the subject Biology - Micro- and Molecular Biology, grade: A, Suffield University (Graduate), language: English, abstract: The dissertation will model interlinked fast and slow positive feedback loops that represent reliable signal transmission to a cell's decision making process. The use of the signal flow diagram will be used to graph an ideal model of this system.
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Fairy-tales, myths and fables spark the imagination. They give us hints of insight, windows and snapshots of greater stories. On the surface, however, these tales are simply entertaining. But what if that's not enough? After Lines takes the classically told fairy-tale, myth, legend, or fable, and brings its hidden complexity to the surface - Stephanie Buosi (Editor-in-chief Erebus Press) Praise for the First Edition «…complete, up-to-date coverage of computational complexity theory…the book promises to become the standard reference on computational complexity.» -Zentralblatt MATH A thorough revision based on advances in the field of computational complexity and readers’ feedback, the Second Edition of Theory of Computational Complexity presents updates to the principles and applications essential to understanding modern computational complexity theory. The new edition continues to serve as a comprehensive resource on the use of software and computational approaches for solving algorithmic problems and the related difficulties that can be encountered. Maintaining extensive and detailed coverage, Theory of Computational Complexity, Second Edition, examines the theory and methods behind complexity theory, such as computational models, decision tree complexity, circuit complexity, and probabilistic complexity. The Second Edition also features recent developments on areas such as NP-completeness theory, as well as: A new combinatorial proof of the PCP theorem based on the notion of expander graphs, a research area in the field of computer science Additional exercises at varying levels of difficulty to further test comprehension of the presented material End-of-chapter literature reviews that summarize each topic and offer additional sources for further study Theory of Computational Complexity, Second Edition, is an excellent textbook for courses on computational theory and complexity at the graduate level. The book is also a useful reference for practitioners in the fields of computer science, engineering, and mathematics who utilize state-of-the-art software and computational methods to conduct research. A thorough revision based on advances in the field of computational complexity and readers’feedback, the Second Edition of Theory of Computational Complexity presents updates to theprinciples and applications essential to understanding modern computational complexitytheory. The new edition continues to serve as a comprehensive resource on the use of softwareand computational approaches for solving algorithmic problems and the related difficulties thatcan be encountered.Maintaining extensive and detailed coverage, Theory of Computational Complexity, SecondEdition, examines the theory and methods behind complexity theory, such as computationalmodels, decision tree complexity, circuit complexity, and probabilistic complexity. The SecondEdition also features recent dev