evaluation of anxiolytic activity on tribulus terrestris linn leaf



Evaluation of Anxiolytic activity on Tribulus terrestris Linn. Leaf Evaluation of Anxiolytic activity on Tribulus terrestris Linn. Leaf Новинка

Evaluation of Anxiolytic activity on Tribulus terrestris Linn. Leaf

Anxiety is an exaggerated feeling of apprehension, uncertainty, and fear. It is an unpleasant state of tension with an anticipation of imminent danger. Benzodiazepines are still the most frequently used drugs for the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder despite their undesirable side effects such as muscle relaxation, sedation, physical dependence, memory disturbance, and interaction with other drugs. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the Standardization of Leaves, anxiolytic activity of Methanolic & Aqueous extract of Tribulus terrestris Linn. The anxiolytic activity was evaluated by Elevated plus Maze & Light Dark Model behavior models. The efficacy of the extract (200 mg/kg) was compared with the standard anxiolytic drugs Diazepam (2 mg/kg). The result showed that the extract significantly increased the number of entries and time spent in the open arm in the elevated plus maze. Both extracts showed significant anxiolytic activity. However Methanolic extract possessed more significant activity as compare to the aqueous extract in Elevated Plus Maze model and Light Dark model.
Role of Tribulus terrestris against acetaminophen-induced liver damage Role of Tribulus terrestris against acetaminophen-induced liver damage Новинка

Role of Tribulus terrestris against acetaminophen-induced liver damage

Problems related to liver such as acute or chronic inflammation, toxin-/drug-induced hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatitis are very common today due to our exposure to different environmental pollutants like chemicals, toxins, viruses etc. For centuries, many herbs have been used as natural medications for the prevention and/or treatment of liver diseases. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of Tribulus terrestris Linn. on acetaminophen-induced liver damage in rats. The rats were divided into five groups of 6 rats each for seven days oral administration. The methanolic extract of Tribulus terrestris L. produced significant hepatoprotective effects as evidenced by decreased serum enzyme activities, SGOT, SGPT, ALP, serum bilirubin, increased total protein. Histopathological architecture of the liver in test group was identical to the reference group. Based on our present findings, it can be concluded that Tribulus terrestris Linn. protects the liver from acetaminophen-induced hepatic damage by stabilizing effect on the plasma membrane as was reported in the case of Silymarin. Responsible leads for the present hepatoprotective studies are flavonoids.
Evaluation of Extract of Leaves for Anxiolytic Activity in Rats Evaluation of Extract of Leaves for Anxiolytic Activity in Rats Новинка

Evaluation of Extract of Leaves for Anxiolytic Activity in Rats

The hydro-alcoholic extract of Boerhaavia diffusa of leaves was investigated for evaluation of exhibited anxiolytic activity in rats at a dose 100 and 200 mg/kg by p.o. route for Elevated Plus Maze test, Hole Board Test, Haloperidol Induced Catalepsy and Ketamine induced Sleep method.. Results of in-vivo activity lead to the conclusion that the hydro-alcoholic of Boerhaavia diffusa showed predominantly significant activity which is compared to the standard drug Diazepam (0.5mg/kg).
Phytochemical Investigation of M.maderaspatana (Linn) Phytochemical Investigation of M.maderaspatana (Linn) Новинка

Phytochemical Investigation of M.maderaspatana (Linn)

This book covers the Phytochemical investigation and evaluation of hypolipidemic activity of Melothria maderaspatana (Linn) in high fat diet fed rats. Melothria maderaspatana is a plant drug belonging to family cucurbitaceae, mostly prevalent in south India. Melothria is a large genus of herbs with 105 species found in warmer region of world. Melothria maderaspatana Linn, is a high valued medicinal significance. It aimed to isolate phytoconstituents and then to characterized them by various methods like TLC, FT-IR, 1H-NMR, spectroscopy. Then aqueous extract of Melothria maderaspatana plant was used for the investigation of hypolipidemic activity in rats. This book will provide food of thoughts for researchers and academicians regarding the future trends and research methodologies on phytochemical investigations on plant Melothria maderaspatana (Linn).
Grapefruit: A potential anxiolytic and antidepressant agent Grapefruit: A potential anxiolytic and antidepressant agent Новинка

Grapefruit: A potential anxiolytic and antidepressant agent

Citrus paradisi commonly known as grapefruit, is considered valuable for its medicinal properties by various traditional systems of medicine and aromatherapy, but no significant work has been conducted on its anxiolytic and antidepressant effects. In the present study, extracts of leaves of Citrus paradisi var. redblush have been evaluated for their CNS activities. Phytochemical and chromatographic profiles of all the leaf extracts have been prepared. The extracts have been evaluated for anxiolytic activity using elevated plus maze model and for antidepressant activity using forced swimming test in mice. Methanol extract at a dose of 200mg/kg has demonstrated significant anxiolytic activity as compared to diazepam and at dose of 400mg/kg has been observed to show significant antidepressant activity as compared to imipramine. The findings presented here are relevant as they contribute to validate the traditional medicinal uses of this plant. Hence, Citrus paradisi var. redblush could be developed as potential anxiolytic and antidepressant agent and may prove as a good alternative in management of psychiatric illnesses.
Antidiabetic activity of Acalypha indica linn Antidiabetic activity of Acalypha indica linn Новинка

Antidiabetic activity of Acalypha indica linn

The purpose of writing this book is to elaborate the study on the topic of Anti-Diabetic activity as well as to give more knowlegde and description of the Pharmacognostical and analytical study of plant Acalyphica Indica Linn. This book consist the whole description regarding pharmacological, pharmacognostical and other activity of acalypha indica linn. this book is the one in which all the three studies are involved of the plant. It helps for further studies also.
Medicinal Plant Plumeria Alba Linn. in Cancer Therapy Medicinal Plant Plumeria Alba Linn. in Cancer Therapy Новинка

Medicinal Plant Plumeria Alba Linn. in Cancer Therapy

Pharmacognostical and Pharmacognostical Screening of the Medicinal Plant Plumeria Alba Linn. (Apocynaceae) in Cancer Therapy, is used in the treatment of ulcers, herpes, scabies and seeds possess haemostatic. The bark is bruised as plaster over hard tumours. Only a very limited research has been carried out on the plant, under the present study assumes singular significance and it is supposed to contribute a great deal to the existing literature. It highlights the macroscopic and microscopic characters of leaf, petiole, physic chemical evaluation and preliminary photochemical studies of the plant. This research concluded that this plant possess significant anticancer activity after applying in vivo and invitro models.
Antimicrobial Activity in Ayurveda& Role of herbs on Gram-ve Bacteria Antimicrobial Activity in Ayurveda& Role of herbs on Gram-ve Bacteria Новинка

Antimicrobial Activity in Ayurveda& Role of herbs on Gram-ve Bacteria

The diseases in Ayurveda are categorized into endogenous and exogenous. Infections exercise a major part among the exogenous categories. A vivid description of infectious diseases, their pathogenesis and treatment have been documented in ayurvedic treatise. Microbes are responsible factor for infection. So to combat the microbes and their newly developing strains is a great challenge. Though, the term microbes or microbial activity have not been clearly described in the text but similar concept, their functional activities and remedies have been vividly described. The study has been carried out for evaluation of the gram-negative activity of aragvadha (Cassia fistula Linn), eranda (Ricinus communis Linn.) and udumbara (Ficus glomerata Roxb.)
Theory of Pain and Wound & Evaluation Of Mimosa Pudica Linn. Leaves Theory of Pain and Wound & Evaluation Of Mimosa Pudica Linn. Leaves Новинка

Theory of Pain and Wound & Evaluation Of Mimosa Pudica Linn. Leaves

The book "THEORY OF PAIN & WOUND AND EVALUATION OF MIMOSA PUDICA LINN. LEAVES ."gives details of the theory of pain and wound their types and pathophysiology, classification along with their pharmacological screening. The in turn of outlook of this book focus on analgesic and wound healing property of mimosa pudica on experimentally induced pain and wound by various models. The parameters viz,pain threshold and healing score were taken to assess the analgesic and wound healing effect of leaves of mimosa pudica Linn. The author is thankful to ABCP, Sangli for providing a good platform for enhancing the teaching and research skill.
Evaluation of Triterpenoidal Anti-Inflammatory Principle Evaluation of Triterpenoidal Anti-Inflammatory Principle Новинка

Evaluation of Triterpenoidal Anti-Inflammatory Principle

A triterpenoidal compound (P2) has been isolated from anti-inflammatory activity guided fractionation of acetone extract of Drypetes roxburghii leaf with a gradient of methanol in chlroform. Further P2 was screened for anti-inflammatory activity on carageenan and dextran induced inflammation models in rats at the dose level of 50 mg/kg body weight. Treatment of inflammed rats with P2 has showed significant reduction in inflammation caused by carrageenan (P>0.01) and dextran (P>0.05). Hence P2 can be considered as the active component responsible for the anti-inflammatory activity of Drypetes roxburghii leaf. The characterization of P2 was done by spectral studies like IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR & Mass Spectroscopy. On the basis of spectral studies the structure of P2 has been elucidated as triterpenoidal compound.
Pharmacognostical Evaluation of Desmodium Gangeticum Linn Pharmacognostical Evaluation of Desmodium Gangeticum Linn Новинка

Pharmacognostical Evaluation of Desmodium Gangeticum Linn

Desmodium gangeticum (Leguminosae) is a versatile plant with many features and considerable prospectives. Whole plant is employed as traditional medicine for the treatment of several disorders. This book highlights various quality parameters based on pharmacognostical & phytochemical evaluation. The investigations on pharmacognostical parameters of the leaves and stem would devise the Pharmacopoeial standards for this plant. Phytochemical investigations would assist in determining the chemical constituents of plant. This book also explores the evaluation of anti-inflammatory potential of Desmodium gangeticum and supports and recommends its use as natural anti-inflammatory drug.
Phytochemical evaluation of leaves of Lathyrus sativus Linn Phytochemical evaluation of leaves of Lathyrus sativus Linn Новинка

Phytochemical evaluation of leaves of Lathyrus sativus Linn

The ethanolic extract of Lathyrus sativus Linn. (Family-Fabaceae) indicated the presence of Alkaloids, Tannins, Steroids, Gums, Glycosides. The ethanolic extract of Lathyrus sativus Linn. is showed anti-oxidant activity (35.23% inhibition at 400ug/ml dose) while the standard ascorbic acid found to be 97.035% inhibition at 400ug/ml dose. The ethanolic extract of Lathyrus sativus Linn. (500 mg/kg) exhibited significant (p
Antihypothyroidism activity of leaves of Cassia fistula Linn. on rats Antihypothyroidism activity of leaves of Cassia fistula Linn. on rats Новинка

Antihypothyroidism activity of leaves of Cassia fistula Linn. on rats

Cassia fistula Linn. (Purging cassia, Golden shower, Amaltas) is widely grown as an ornamental plant and well known traditional plant in India. The plant is having antioxidant activity, anti-inflammatory, laxative, wound healing, hepato-protective, antitussive, cardiovascular activity, antiulcer, antibacterial agent, larvicidal, ovicidal and antifertility effect. The aim was to search for anti-hypothyroidism activity of aqueous and ethanolic extract of Cassia fistula leaves. Aqueous and ethanolic extract of Cassia fistula leaves were investigated for its potential to protect hypothyroidism against hypothyroidism induced by propylthiouracil (PTU) in rats. fT3, fT4, TSH, cholesterol level and changes in body weight were used for evaluation of antihypothyroidism activity. Treatment with both extracts of Cassia fistula in dose of 300 mg/kg significantly increased fT3, fT4 and decreased TSH and cholesterol level compared with control group (p>0.001).Based on the studies we concluded that the ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Cassia fistula leaves might contain some active principles against hypothyroidism.
Pharmacological Evaluation Of Acalypha Indica Linn Pharmacological Evaluation Of Acalypha Indica Linn Новинка

Pharmacological Evaluation Of Acalypha Indica Linn

Uncontrolled environmental pollution, poor sanitary conditions, alcohol intoxication and indiscriminate use of potent drugs predispose liver to a vast array of disorders. Asthma is one of the most common disorders encountered in clinical medicine in both children and adults characterized by inflammation of the airway that is central to airway dysfunction. Effect of ethanol and aqoues extract of the leaves of Acalypha indica (Euphorbiaceae) was investigated against carbon tetra chloride-induced hepatic damage and Bronchodilator activity . carbon tetra chloride at the rate of 1 ml/kg produced liver damage in rats as manifested by the significant (P>0.001) rise in serum levels of AST,ALT,ALP compared to respective control values. Treatment of animals with the plant extract (200 and 400 mg/kg) orally once daily for 7 days prevented (P>0.01) the carbon tetra chloride -induced rise in serum transaminases (AST and ALT) and ALP. Bronchodilator activity studied on the spasmolytic activity on guinea pig isolated tracheal chain and Milk induced Eosinophillia and leukocytosis in mice. These results suggest that aqueous extract of the Acalypha indica Linn. has prove bronchodilating activity
Ethnopharmacological activity of extracts of Ocimum tenuiflorum Linn. Ethnopharmacological activity of extracts of Ocimum tenuiflorum Linn. Новинка

Ethnopharmacological activity of extracts of Ocimum tenuiflorum Linn.

In case of antimicrobial activity, two bacterial strains ( S.aureus, E.coli) and two fungal strains (A.niger, Trichophyton sp.) are being used. As well as the antioxidant activity is conerned two assays DPPH and Total Antioxidant activity were used to determine the values. Dermatologicla activity ofthe extracts ws determined by applying the extracts on the rabbit ear and irritancy was noted by the strength and tendency of the skin redness.
Toxicity evaluation of endosulfan on Clarias batrachus Linn Toxicity evaluation of endosulfan on Clarias batrachus Linn Новинка

Toxicity evaluation of endosulfan on Clarias batrachus Linn

The toxic impact of organochlorine pesticide endosulfan was estimated on Indian channel catfish Clarias batrachus (Linn.). The most exposed organ gills were examined under Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) of the treated and control fishes. The hematocytes were also examined under SEM. The blood biochemistry for alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, C-reactive protein and cortisol were also investigated. The experiment shown major alterations in the blood biochemistry and ultrastructure of gill and blood cells.
Hepatoprotective Activity of Leaves of Coriandrum Sativum Linn. Hepatoprotective Activity of Leaves of Coriandrum Sativum Linn. Новинка

Hepatoprotective Activity of Leaves of Coriandrum Sativum Linn.

This book provides a systematic and comprehensive coverage of the Hepatoprotective Activity of Leaves of Coriander Sativum linn. In the field of Microbiology, Biotechnology, Pharmacy (Pharmaceutical chemistry, Pharmacology, Pharmacognosy). This book cover introduction, plant profile, review of literature, research, experimental work, qualitative analysis, material and methods, result, conclusion of this subject. This book provides a systematic and comprehensive coverage of the theory as well as the application there of in the field of Pharmacy and Microbiology.
Anticarcinogenic activity of Clerodendrum serratum in albino mice Anticarcinogenic activity of Clerodendrum serratum in albino mice Новинка

Anticarcinogenic activity of Clerodendrum serratum in albino mice

Skin, a major environmental interface for the body, is accidentally or occupationally exposed to a number of chemical mutagens and carcinogens. Skin cancer accounts for 30% of all diagnosed cancers in the world. The evaluation of anticarcinogenic activity of Clerodendrum serratum leaf extract on DMBA induced skin carcinogenesis in swiss albino mice revealed that there was decrease in the body and organs weight, affected biochemical contents, dehydrogenases and phosphatases activities and oxidative stress parameters of liver, kidney and testes of mice. Amelioration in the above mentioned parameters was observed on treatment with methanolic leaf extract of Clerodendrum serratum, indicating its anticarcinogenic potential. The inferences drawn from the study revealed that the methanolic leaf extract of Clerodendrum serratum recovered the biochemical contents, dehydrogenases and phosphatases activity and oxidative stress parameters of liver, kidney and testes of mice. The presence of major chemical components such as phenolics, steroids, diterpenes and triterpenes, flavonoids and volatile oils attributed its chemopreventive potential as an antioxidant and antiproliferative agent........
Pterospermum acerifolium Pterospermum acerifolium Новинка

Pterospermum acerifolium

Pterospermum acerifolium belonging to the family of Sterculiaceae has been studied. The work was carried out for isolation of it’s secondary metabolites and evaluation of biological activities of it’s bark with special emphasis on antioxidant activity, cytotoxicity, and antimicrobial activity The isolated compounds were identified by extensive analyses of their high resolution proton-NMR spectroscopic data.
Evaluation of New Bicyclic Lactone ''Michelianone'' Evaluation of New Bicyclic Lactone ''Michelianone'' Новинка

Evaluation of New Bicyclic Lactone ''Michelianone''

A novel bicyclic lactone ''Michelianone'' (P4) has been isolated from anti-inflammatory activity guided fractionation of chloroform extract of Michelia oblonga leaf with a gradient of ethyl acetate in petroleum ether. Further P4 was screened for anti- inflammatory activity on carrageenan and dextran induced inflammation model in rats at the dose level of 50 mg/kg body weight. Treatment of inflammed rats with P4 has showed significant reduction in inflammation caused by carrageenan (P
Impact of leaf harvesting on cowpea of the BEB type Impact of leaf harvesting on cowpea of the BEB type Новинка

Impact of leaf harvesting on cowpea of the BEB type

In most communal areas of Zimbabwe farmers grow cowpea for vegetable leaves and grain. An evaluation of the impact of leaf harvesting intensity, frequency and duration on leaf and grain yield, nutritional composition and nodulation of Black-eyed bean (BEB) (determinate) compared to local landraces (indeterminate) was done on-farm in Mutoko District and University of Zimbabwe during the 2005/6 and 2006/7 rainy seasons. Leaf harvest intensity had three levels namely, one leaf, two leaves and three leaves per branch, while leaf harvest interval had two levels, weekly and fortnightly. An increase in leaf harvesting intensities significantly increased leaf yield and decreased grain yield. BEB produced higher grain and lower leaf yield in all the intensities, intervals and on both sites than the local landraces. BEB leaf and grain was largely nutritionally better than the local landrace. Nieto curves were exploited to determine the critical cowpea leaf harvesting periods. Leaf harvesting started at three leaf stages and only one leaf per branch was harvested per week. Pot experiment to investigate effects on nodulation was conducted in the 2006/7 rainy season in a glasshouse.
Novel Arylpiperazines as Anxiolytic agents: Synthesis and SAR Novel Arylpiperazines as Anxiolytic agents: Synthesis and SAR Новинка

Novel Arylpiperazines as Anxiolytic agents: Synthesis and SAR

Anxiety is a common disorder affecting one eighth of the total population worldwide and now a days with increasing competition anxiety disorders have become one of the widest spread psychiatric diseases. The serotonergic system has been consistently implicated in the patho physiology of a number of psychiatric disorders. Among 14 different types of serotonin receptors, 5-HT1A subtype is a major target for neurobiological research and drug development. Its activation leads to a number of physiological changes. The development of drugs that alter 5-HT neurotransmission is thus an area of intense research. Here in this book we reported the synthesis, structure–activity studies and pharmacology of new derivatives of arylpiperazine. These compounds were tested for their anxiolytic activity using behavioural tests, biomarker analysis and HPLC studies. Molecular modeling and Radioligand binding studies were undertaken to explain the influence of spacer length on ligands affinity towards 5-HT1A receptor. This work suggests new compounds, which can serve as candidates for the treatment of anxiety disorders and as lead compounds for further designing new potential anxiolytic agents.
Phytoconstituents & Antioxidant activity of Actiniopteris radiata Linn Phytoconstituents & Antioxidant activity of Actiniopteris radiata Linn Новинка

Phytoconstituents & Antioxidant activity of Actiniopteris radiata Linn

During the last few decades, research into chemistry of natural products has advanced tremendously thanks to contributions from the fields of chemistry, life sciences, food science and material sciences. Comparisons of natural products from microorganisms, lower eukaryotes, animals, higher plants and marine organisms are now well documented. This book provides the detail study of isolation, structure elucidation and In-vitro antioxidant activity of Actiniopteris radiata Linn. In this, the chemical constituents isolated from different extracts of actiniopteris radiata (whole plant) namely, Stigmasterol, ?-sitosterol palmitate, hentriacontanol, ?-sitosterol ,Quercetin and rutin. further these extracts were screened for antioxidant acitivity, from which ethylacetate extract and isolated compound RUTIN shows significance response of antioxidant activity. This book is dedicated to new and important research in the field of phytochemistry which is in the strict sense of the word the study of phytochemicals.
A Potent Analgesic Herb Jyotismati A Potent Analgesic Herb Jyotismati Новинка

A Potent Analgesic Herb Jyotismati

The book is enriched with classical, ethnopharmacological use of the herb Jyotismati with scientific evidences. Pharmacognostical pictures are clearly illustrated. Phytochemical profile of the leaf with HPTLC data have been provided. Evaluation of analgesic activity of the leaf extract by different solvent is notified clearly. All the data depicted in this book will be very useful to initiate any herbal research. It is a very good guideline to perform any plant research in a systematic way. It is authors promise that the book will be useful to all type of readers.
Pharmacognostic And Pharmacological Evaluation Of Alstonia Scholaris Pharmacognostic And Pharmacological Evaluation Of Alstonia Scholaris Новинка

Pharmacognostic And Pharmacological Evaluation Of Alstonia Scholaris

Alstonia scholaris (L.) has been a popular household remedy for inflammation of the respiratory system and liver etc. In Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) its leaf extract is available commercially (anti-inflammatory, analgesic activities, anti-tussive, anti-asthmatic and expectorant activities).Hence, it was thought worthwhile to explore a detailed study of its pharmacognostic and hepatoprotective activity using well established models
Pharmacognosy and Biological evaluation of Murraya koenigii (Linn) Pharmacognosy and Biological evaluation of Murraya koenigii (Linn) Новинка

Pharmacognosy and Biological evaluation of Murraya koenigii (Linn)

The leaves of Murraya koenigii (Curry Leaf Tree) are used as traditional medicine for the treatment of diarrhoea. The present study was undertaken to substantiate ethnobotanical claim and evaluate the effect of extract of Murraya koenigii for its antidiarrhoeal potential against experimental model of diarrhoea.The leaves of the plant were studied for their pharmacognostic characteristics like morphology, microscopy, physiochemical parameters and phytochemical screening of various extracts and results were reported. The extracts were obtained after successive extraction with solvents of increasing polarity.The antidiarrhoeal activity of aqueous extract of Murraya koenigii leaves at graded doses (300 & 600 mg/kg body weight) was evaluated in term of reduction in the count of defecation and consistency of faeces using castor oil-induced diarrhoea model in rats. At various doses (300 & 600 mg/kg body weight) the aqueous extract showed a dose-dependent antidiarrhoeal activity evidenced by the reduction in the rate of defecation and consistency of faeces. At the doses of 300 and 600 mg/kg per oral, the aqueous extract showed significant (p
Antidiabetic investigation of Tamarindus indica (Tamarind) Linn seeds Antidiabetic investigation of Tamarindus indica (Tamarind) Linn seeds Новинка

Antidiabetic investigation of Tamarindus indica (Tamarind) Linn seeds

Tamarindus indica Linn is used as traditional medicine for the management of diabetes mellitus. The present study has been undertaken to screen the hypoglycemic and anti-hyperglycemic activity of Tamarindus indica seed powder in nondiabetic and both Type 1, Type 2 diabetic model rats. Our results demonstrate that T. indica seed powder possesses significant antihyperglycemic activity in Type 2 diabetic model rats. The antihyperglycemic activity is at least, partly due to inhibition of intestinal glucose absorption. This effect cannot be attributed to the acceleration of intestinal transit. However, comprehensive chemical and pharmacological researches are required to find out the exact mechanism of this seed powder for its antidiabetogenic effect and to identify the active constituent(s) responsible for this effect.
Evaluation of Cardioprotective activity of Lagenaria siceraria Evaluation of Cardioprotective activity of Lagenaria siceraria Новинка

Evaluation of Cardioprotective activity of Lagenaria siceraria

The aim of present study was to evaluate the cardioprotective activity of leaf extract of L. siceraria against the Isoproterenol induced cardiotoxicity in rats. The leaf extract of Lagenaria siceraria (LSLE) was prepared using 70% ethanol (hydroalcoholic) using soxhlet apparatus. Extract was administered to Male wistar albino rats. Blood was collected & Serum was separated and used for measurement of cardiac marker enzymes like, CK-MB, LDH, Cardiac Troponin I and serum parameters like AST, ALT and ALP. hearts were isolated from rat, which were used for the histopathological studies and for determination of total proteins and antioxidant parameters like SOD, GSH and for the MDA content for Lipid peroxidation.
Antiasthmatic Activity of Herbal Drug and Vermitechnology Antiasthmatic Activity of Herbal Drug and Vermitechnology Новинка

Antiasthmatic Activity of Herbal Drug and Vermitechnology

Traditional medicine based on herbal remedies has always played a key role to cure common diseases like cough, bronchitis and asthma, but also serious diseases like tumor, cancer and AIDS. The study involves the use of a poly herbal drug ‘pentapala-04’ which consists of five medicinal plants namely Adhatoda vasica, Nees., Ocimum sanctum, Linn., Coleus aromaticus, Benth., Glycyrrhiza glabra, Linn and Alpinia galanga Sw. in the prevention and curation of ova albumin and aluminium hydroxide induced lung damage rats and the influence of vermicompost on the growth parameters and secondary metabolites synthesis of selected medicinal plants.
Role of Tribulus terrestris in the treatment of Diabetic Nephropathy Role of Tribulus terrestris in the treatment of Diabetic Nephropathy Новинка

Role of Tribulus terrestris in the treatment of Diabetic Nephropathy

Diabetic nephropathy is a serious complication of diabetes in which elevated blood sugar levels eventually damage the kidneys. Nephropathy means disease or abnormality of the kidney. Diabetic nephropathy is also called diabetic kidney disease. Diabetic nephropathy is the kidney disease that occurs as a result of diabetes. It is a leading cause of kidney failure in Europe and the USA. After many years of diabetes the delicate filtering system in the kidney becomes destroyed, initially becoming leaky to large blood proteins such as albumin which are then lost in urine. This is more likely to occur if the blood sugar is poorly controlled. Herbal medication is the most commonly used alternative therapy for treatment of diabetes and its complication. Present treatment for diabetic nephropathy requires two drugs hypoglycemic and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, from the above study Tribulus terrestris aqueous extract showed significant anti-diabetic as well as renoprotective effect by decreasing serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, urinary albumin and creatinine clearance.
Phytochemical Screening and the Evaluation of the Plant Senna Siamea Phytochemical Screening and the Evaluation of the Plant Senna Siamea Новинка

Phytochemical Screening and the Evaluation of the Plant Senna Siamea

Senna siamea is an important medicinal plant having widespread application in a variety of disorders. The aim of this study was the phytochemical investigation and evaluation of Cytotoxicity, Analgesic Antidiarrhoeal, Antimicrobial activities of the leaf of Senna siamea. Phytochemical screening of the ethanolic extract of Senna siamea ensured the presence of glycosides,tannins and steoids. In cytotoxicity activity test the crude extracts of leaves were found to show less activity.The crude ethanolic extract exhibited dose dependent analgesic activity. The ethanol extract of Senna siamea at the dose of 500 mg/kg exhibit significant (P< 0.001) inhibition of writhing reflex by 61.98% while the standard drug diclofenac Na inhibition was found to be 85.95 % at a dose of 25 mg/kg body weight. In the castor oil-induced diarrhoeal mice, the ethanol extract of Senna siamea at the dose of 500 mg/kg, reduced the total number of faeces as well as of diarrhoeic faeces, and the result was statistically significant In anti-microbial activity test by disc-diffusion method the extract showed no activity against the test organisms at the dose of 500µg/disc in comparison with standard drug Kanamycin.
Nielsen Steffen Bohni Performance Management and Evaluation. New Directions for Evaluation, Number 137 Nielsen Steffen Bohni Performance Management and Evaluation. New Directions for Evaluation, Number 137 Новинка

Nielsen Steffen Bohni Performance Management and Evaluation. New Directions for Evaluation, Number 137

This issue focuses on connections between performance management and evaluation, a contentious topic at the moment. It does so by placing evaluation and monitoring under the overarching concept of performance management, and then by investigating five complementarities between performance monitoring and measurement on the one hand, and evaluation on the other. These complementarities are: Sequential Informational Organizational Methodical Hierarchical. Several case studies discuss the uses and complementarities of evaluation and performance management in contexts including national and local governments and the work of government, philanthropic foundations, and a direct-service nonprofit agency. These cases illustrate the advantages and pitfalls in utilizing evaluative approaches within the context of performance management. This is the 137th volume of the Jossey-Bass quarterly report series New Directions for Evaluation, an official publication of the American Evaluation Association.
Free radical scavenging activity of Premna obtusifolia Linn. Free radical scavenging activity of Premna obtusifolia Linn. Новинка

Free radical scavenging activity of Premna obtusifolia Linn.

In recent years,there has been a rebirth of interest in plant biochemistry and global investment in research in this important sector of science,is on an upward trend.This book provides a systematic coverage of phytochemicaI, pharmacological and biochemical findings of a medicinal plant, Premna obtusifolia which is having lots of pharmacological uses.There has been increasing demand of pharmaceuticals from medicinal plants.This book will enable the students and researchers to have clear and quick grasp of the scientific ideas in the field of research.
Pharmacological evaluation of Tabernaemontana divaricata Linn. (R.Br.) Pharmacological evaluation of Tabernaemontana divaricata Linn. (R.Br.) Новинка

Pharmacological evaluation of Tabernaemontana divaricata Linn. (R.Br.)

Abstract: The aim of the present study was to assess the anti-fertility activity of ethanolic extracts of Tabernaemontana divaricata (TD) leaves in estrogenic activity models in immature female rats. Mature green leaves of TD were collected and authenticated. Extractions of the dried leaves were carried out with ethanol in a Soxhlet’s apparatus. For estrogenic activity, the extracts were administered orally once daily at a dose of 200 and 400 mgkg1, and the activity was compared with the standard drug ethinyl estradiol(0.02 mg). The extracts caused ignificant increase in uterine weight compared to the control. The ethanolic extract exhibited estrogenic activity. The histological study of epithelium tissues with the 400mg of TD extract-treated animals showed increases in the height of the luminal epithelium and loose edematous stroma when compared with the 200 mg of TD extract-treated group of animals. However, this was better than the control group of animals. Enhanced uterine weight and increase in the height of luminal epithelium and histological characteristics suggest that TD extract may be useful in anti-fertility therapy.
Evaluations of Barley Genotypes for Irrigation and Drought Resistance Evaluations of Barley Genotypes for Irrigation and Drought Resistance Новинка

Evaluations of Barley Genotypes for Irrigation and Drought Resistance

This works contains 10 separate manuscripts dealing with the evaluation of 16 different Barley (Hordeum vulgare) genotypes. Evaluation included the anatomy of stomata, epidermis and their populations, as influenced by drought and adequate irrigation. Dessication of barley leaves followed in hood to track the pattern of water transpirations of the 16 investigated genotypes. Equations for the estimation of leaf area, leaf size, leaf fresh weigh, leaf bulk density and leaf thickness created through regression analysis. This works are very useful for student, instructors to learn how to perform the researches required Caser G. Abdel 2015
Drug-Drug Interaction Drug-Drug Interaction Новинка

Drug-Drug Interaction

The evaluation and management of combination drug therapy assumes much importance especially where the drugs are used for prolonged time-period. Management of HIV/AIDS is gradually expanding to include the chronic and metabolic complications and the adverse effects associated with its treatments like Type II diabetes. Repaglinide is a novel oral hypoglycaemic agent chemically unrelated to sulphonylureas, metformin or acarbose used for the treatment of type II diabetes. Nevirapine is widely used NNRTIs for the treatment of HIV infection. The role of nevirapine on the pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic activity of repaglinide is not currently known. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of oral administration of nevirapine on blood glucose and investigate their effect on the activity of repaglinide in various animal models to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of the combination.
Genetic Evaluation for Leaf Webber Resistance in Sesame Genetic Evaluation for Leaf Webber Resistance in Sesame Новинка

Genetic Evaluation for Leaf Webber Resistance in Sesame

Sesame leaf webber and capsule borer, Antigastra catalaunalis Duponchel is a serious pest of sesame in India and World. Presently synthetic insecticides are extensively used against this pest. Sole reliance on chemical pesticides is not recommended while considering their effects on non-targets, insecticide resistance and residual problem. Host plant resistance is a potential approach as it gives cumulative protection. In this book the studies involving genotypes screening and mechanism of resistance in sesame genotypes against leaf webber has been elaborated in detail along with the standardized screening techniques. Our book contains useful information about resistance source, genotypes evaluation procedures for the researchers to carry out large scale screening for insect resistance.
Evaluation Of Employee Performance Evaluation Of Employee Performance Новинка

Evaluation Of Employee Performance

Measuring employees performance has long been of interest to many organisations the teaching fraternity inclusive. However, the success of an evaluation programme is dependent on the effectiveness of the system under use. This has created the need for empirical research to ascertain the effectiveness of performance evaluation system . Evaluating the performance of teachers based on national examinations is not adequate as there are intervening variables that influence performance. This book provides an analysis of the effectiveness of the performance evaluation system of teachers in secondary schools. It has an indepth assessment of the performance evaluation system, challenges accruing while evaluating teachers, applicability of the performance evaluation system in secondary schools and the effectiveness of the performance evaluation system among secondary school teachers. This book is especially useful to policy makers and stakeholders in the education sector as it sheds light on the effectiveness of the performance evaluation system of teachers in secondary schools. It also sheds light on key weaknesses in the system and makes suggestions on how it can be made more effective.
Phytochemical And Pharmacological Evaluation Of Achyranthes Aspera Phytochemical And Pharmacological Evaluation Of Achyranthes Aspera Новинка

Phytochemical And Pharmacological Evaluation Of Achyranthes Aspera

In this present investigation anti oxidant activity of Achyranthes aspera was evaluate to certify that this methanol extract may be beneficial and may utilize for vivo assessment in different kind of biological activity such as anti asthmatic, antimicrobial, antiulcer activity because ulcer is formed due to stress, alcohol consumption.
Natural Product Part-I Berginia Natural Product Part-I Berginia Новинка

Natural Product Part-I Berginia

In Indian Himalayan region there are vast number of herbal healers on which variety of work has been done. But still today these are not very much popular. One of tham, is Berginia species. So this book is compilation of work done on the species to explore the complete study of Himalayan Herb, Brginia in its all aspects. Book include the extract prepared, chemical compounds isolated and their pharmacological activity studied till today. In this way this book give novel idea to the readers to orient their research viwes regarding this plant towards new direction. The Pharmacological activity studied till today include: Antilithiac activity, Diuretic activity, Antibradikinin activity, Antiviral activity, Antipyretic activity, antibacterial activity, Anti-inflammatory activity, hepatoprotective activity and so on.
Syntheses and Bio-Chemical Studies Of Synthesized Organic Compounds Syntheses and Bio-Chemical Studies Of Synthesized Organic Compounds Новинка

Syntheses and Bio-Chemical Studies Of Synthesized Organic Compounds

The present book "Syntheses and Bio-Chemical Studies Of Synthesized Organic Compounds" includes synthesis, charecterization and biological eveluation of some novel heterocycles having pharmacological interest. Here it included evaluation of novel heterocycle on some gram positive bacteria, Gram negative bacteria, fungal species and concluded that some five member and six member heterocycles with 'N' gives excellent biological activity.
Herbal Treatment of Anxiety Herbal Treatment of Anxiety Новинка

Herbal Treatment of Anxiety

Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a prevalent and impairing disorder, associated with extensive psychiatric and medical comorbidity. The current pharmacotherapies of anxiety are based on antidepressants and benzodiazepines. However, these drugs have limitations like slow onset of action, development of drug dependence, tolerance, amnesia and sedation. Therefore, the use of alternative therapies has increased substantially over the last decade. Kava is an intoxicating beverage made from the root extract of Piper methysticum and has been known as anxiolytic drug. The German health authorities banned kava extract containing products based on the suspicion of a potential liver toxicity. However, the risk-to-benefit ratio of kava extracts remains good in comparison to that of other anxiolytic drugs. To specialists in phytotherapy, this book provide detailed study to investigate the role played by amino acid neurotransmitters and acetylcholinesterase, in different rat brain areas, in the anxiolytic action of kava and the withdrawal effect of kava on them. Another aspect of this study is to demonstrate the effect of kava on some liver and kidney function parameters.
Analysis and Biological Evaluation of Jordanian Olive Trees Leaves Analysis and Biological Evaluation of Jordanian Olive Trees Leaves Новинка

Analysis and Biological Evaluation of Jordanian Olive Trees Leaves

Master Thesis in Applied Chemical Science, it Includes studing 27 different olive tree cultivars leaves ethanolic extracts in terms of their total phenolic content, antioxidant activity, toxicity to brine shrimps, anticancer activity (cell cycle analysis, cell death assay, MTT test), safety on normal cells (MTT test), LC-MS anlysis and quntification for some of their chemical constituents like Oleuropein, Oleanolic acid, Erythrodiol with its isomer Uvaol, Quercetin, Rutin. investigation of the presence of Resveratrol and Salicin qualitatively and quantitatively using LC-MS anlysis , studing the correlation between each constituent concentration in the extracts and their toxicity to brine shrimps also their correlation with anticancer activity on 7 cancer cell lines (MCF- 7, MDA-MB-231, C32, MV3, SW480, SW620, HCT-116), LC- MS(-)ESI,(+)APCI finger print of the most potent anticancer extracts.
Evaluation of adaptogenic activity of Glycyrrhiza glabra root Evaluation of adaptogenic activity of Glycyrrhiza glabra root Новинка

Evaluation of adaptogenic activity of Glycyrrhiza glabra root

Stress is one of the leading causes of anxiety and depression disease, endocrine disease, gastrointestinal and metabolic disorder due to internal and external stressor in both developed and developing countries. Some drugs which are uses to treatment of stress themselves causes mental depression. Hence it is imperative to find out drugs with minimum side effect and for its effective adaptogenic activity. Glycyrrhiza glabra has been known to traditional medicinal system for its adaptogenic activity. Present study was undertaken scientifically to evaluate adaptogenic activity of Glycyrrhiza glabra roots.
Dean Spaulding T. Program Evaluation in Practice. Core Concepts and Examples for Discussion and Analysis Dean Spaulding T. Program Evaluation in Practice. Core Concepts and Examples for Discussion and Analysis Новинка

Dean Spaulding T. Program Evaluation in Practice. Core Concepts and Examples for Discussion and Analysis

An updated guide to the core concepts of program evaluation This updated edition of Program Evaluation in Practice covers the core concepts of program evaluation and uses case studies to touch on real-world issues that arise when conducting an evaluation project. This important resource is filled with illustrative examples written in accessible terms and provides a wide variety of evaluation projects that can be used for discussion, analysis, and reflection. The book addresses foundations and theories of evaluation, tools and methods for collecting data, writing of reports, and the sharing of findings. The discussion questions and class activities at the end of each chapter are designed to help process the information in that chapter and to integrate the information from the other chapters, thus facilitating the learning process. As useful for students as it is for evaluators in training, Program Evaluation in Practice is a must-have text for those aspiring to be effective evaluators. Includes expanded discussion of basic theories and approaches to program evaluation Features a new chapter on objective-based evaluation and a new section on ethics in program evaluation Provides more detailed information and in-depth description for each case, including evaluation approaches, fresh references, new readings, and the new Joint Committee Standards for Evaluation
Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of caesalpinia bonducella Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of caesalpinia bonducella Новинка

Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of caesalpinia bonducella

Inflammation is a natural process that occurs in your body as a way to protect you from infection and foreign substances.In Unani literature the efficacy of Caesalpinia bonducella as an anti inflammatory have been already reported in Unani literature but no work have been done. The objective of the study is standardization and evaluation of antiinflammatory activity of Caesalpinia bonducella on Swiss albino rats.The drug possess antiinflammatory and antioxidant activity .This might be due to the presence of phenolics and flavonoids.In conclusion Caesalpinia bonducella possess antiinflammatory activity .This type of research is needful for the people living in far flung areas.
Biological Evaluation Of Some 2-Substituted 4,5-Diphenyl Imidazoles Biological Evaluation Of Some 2-Substituted 4,5-Diphenyl Imidazoles Новинка

Biological Evaluation Of Some 2-Substituted 4,5-Diphenyl Imidazoles

In this book various 2-substituted 4,5-diphenyl imidazoles were prepared by refluxing benzyl with different aromatic aldehydes. The synthesized compounds were characterized by physical data analysis and spectral analysis. The synthesized compounds exhibited analgesic activity against chemically and thermal noxious stimuli. The analgesic activity was found to be significant on the tail-flick model and on the acetic acid induced writhing model. The anti-inflammatory activity was found to be significant on the Carrageenan-induced paw oedema model compared to control. In the Pheretima posthuma, all the synthesized compounds were found to possess anthelmintic activity. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the synthesized compounds for the various microbes was determined.
Alternaria leaf spot and its management Alternaria leaf spot and its management Новинка

Alternaria leaf spot and its management

Alternaria leaf spot is a seed borne disease which is usually occurs in cole crops. This disease is seed borne as its conidia are present in the seeds which gets active along with the germination of seeds. This disease has severe effect on the production on leafy vegetable as well as it has severe loss in seed production of broccoli. Although chemical methods is effective for its management but due to its residual activity it harms on health of consumer so the botanical extract Acorus calamus and garlic has been effective for the control of this. So local product and plant extract can be benificial for the control of alternaria leaf spot.
Influential consequence towards ayurvedic remedy: Tribulus Terrestris Influential consequence towards ayurvedic remedy: Tribulus Terrestris Новинка

Influential consequence towards ayurvedic remedy: Tribulus Terrestris

The book contains the information regarding the tribulus terrestris. References are arranged by topic. Although the ideal preparation for taking the course and using the book would be the completion of preliminary courses in pharmacognosy & phytochemistry. One consequence of the principles and analysis approach taken here is that the material is not easy. Thinking and learning to reason from the fundamentals require serious effort, but ultimately, are more efficient and more rewarding than mere memorization. An auxiliary objective of this presentation is to help students & scholar develop an appreciation for elegant and beautiful experiments for the benefit of mankind. This book evolved from the research involved in the area of phytopharmacologicals which we have been teaching primarily to graduate as well as post gradute students for the past seven years. Because the subject is now mature, it is possible to present the material by covering the principles and encouraging students to learn how to apply them.
Evaluation of Biological Activities of Gomphrena globosa,Amaranthaceae Evaluation of Biological Activities of Gomphrena globosa,Amaranthaceae Новинка

Evaluation of Biological Activities of Gomphrena globosa,Amaranthaceae

Crude methanolic extract and different fractions of Gomphreana globosa (Amaranthaceae) were subjected to investigate biological activities based on traditional medicinal uses. Among all the fractions n-hexane soluble fraction exhibited highest free radical scavenging activity and phenolic content compared with BHT and Galic acid, chloroform soluble fraction showed significant cytotoxic activity compared with Vincristine sulfate; crude methanolic extract, n-hexane & aqueous soluble fraction reveled significant peripheral & central analgesic activity at a dose 400 mg/kg body weight in mice model. On the other hand crude methanolic extract showed very mild antidiarrheal activity in mice model.
Evaluation of Pyrazole Heterocycles against Cancer – A Review Evaluation of Pyrazole Heterocycles against Cancer – A Review Новинка

Evaluation of Pyrazole Heterocycles against Cancer – A Review

The literature survey comprehensively documented the pyrazole and its derivatives as significantly important class of heterocyclic compounds possessing a wide spectrum of biological activities against anticancer, antimicrobial, antiinflammatory, antitubercular, analgesic, etc. Pyrazole are readily available and series of compounds has been synthesized by countless modification in various positions on the pyrazole nucleus that has displayed improved biological activity. The compounds are further characterised and evaluated for desire pharmacological activity with high potency and low toxicity.
N-Substituted Pyrrolopyridazines N-Substituted Pyrrolopyridazines Новинка

N-Substituted Pyrrolopyridazines

This book explores the anticonvulsant potential of pyrrolopyridazine heterocyclic ring. After the synthesis of the compound and evaluation it is concluded that the potency of pyrrolopyridazine depends on the substituted group present into the ring. Out of substituents the oxide like methoxide containing benzene ring are best to enhance the potency, other than this some other electronegative atoms like chlorine, hydroxide are also contributing for considerable activity. Pyrrolopyridazine has great potential to convince the researchers to prepare compounds in future for this critical disease and other biological activity.
Anticancer Evaluation of Thiazole Based Heterocycles – A Review Anticancer Evaluation of Thiazole Based Heterocycles – A Review Новинка

Anticancer Evaluation of Thiazole Based Heterocycles – A Review

In the present study, we have reported the effect of thiazole based derivatives as potent anticancer agents. The review report helps to elucidate further the structure activity relationship (SAR) studies on the anticancer activity of thiazole moiety. Results suggest that the position, number of substituent and its bulkiness at thiazole ring play a key role in inhibiting the proliferation of cancer cells. In general, the thiazole analogs displayed better anticancer activity. Therefore, the selected review on thiazole moiety and its cancer treatment are initiative to researchers those who involved in the medicinal chemistry research.
Standardization & Evaluation of laxative activity of 'Dindayal Churna' Standardization & Evaluation of laxative activity of 'Dindayal Churna' Новинка

Standardization & Evaluation of laxative activity of 'Dindayal Churna'

The challenges faced by herbal formulations because of their lack of standardization. For evaluation of Churnas containing different herb parameters tested for raw material were organoleptic, physicochemical, physical, phytochemical etc. Parameters for finished product include pH, loss on drying, angle of repose, Carr’s index, Hausner’s ratio etc. HPTLC fingerprinting of Dindayal and Developed Churna were carried out as a part of evaluation. Dindayal and Developed Churna consist of C. angustifolia leaves and fruits of F. vulgare, T. ammi and T. chebula and it is used as a laxative. Results indicated that raw material of Dindayal and Developed Churna had passed through all organoleptic, physicochemical, physical, and phytochemical parameters. All three batches of Dindayal and Developed Churna were almost uniform. HPTLC fingerprinting indicated presence of peaks at Rf in respective solvent system were matched with Raw material, Dindayal and Developed Churna confirming the presence of raw material in Dindayal Churna as well as Developed churna. Laxative activity of Dindayal Churna was not in dose dependent manner While Developed Churna shown laxative activity in dose dependent manner.
Ayurlab's Herbal Cough Syrup Ayurlab's Herbal Cough Syrup Новинка

Ayurlab's Herbal Cough Syrup

The research work contains standardization, Development and pharmacological evaluation of both Marketed syrup(Ayurlab's Herbal Cough Syrup) and Developed syrup. In standardisation organoleptic, physicochemical, physical and phytochemical evauation were included. Also Heavy metal and Microbial analysis and Anti oxidant activity were done. In Development water extracts of each ingredients were prepared by spray dried method(Labultima) and hot plate method. HPTLC evaluation were done by marker compounds and fingerprinting done by comparing Rf value for particular ingredient. By HPTLC evaluation it was conclude that extracts used in preparation of syrup were genuie. It contains tables that gives easy evaluation of data, figures which gives easy visulation in 254 and 366nm. It also contains 3D image and chromatogram. In pharmacological evaluation animal activity done was antitussive activity of Herbal Cough Syrup and Developed Syrup in sulphur dioxide induced cough model using mice and anti inflammatory activity of Herbal Cough Syrup and Developed Syrup in carragenan induced rat paw oedema model and statical analysis was done using Grapgpad Prism 5 software.
Ethnopharmacological investigation of the spice Grewia paniculata Ethnopharmacological investigation of the spice Grewia paniculata Новинка

Ethnopharmacological investigation of the spice Grewia paniculata

The present study was carried out for pharmacological and chemical investigations on various crude extracts of Grewia paniculata bark and leaf. The phytochemical screening of all the extracts demonstrated the presence of carbohydrates, tannins, flavonoids, saponins, proteins, steroids and alkaloids. The analgesic activity was performed by acetic acid-induced writhing method, hot plate and tail immersion method in mice. The CNS depressant activity was evaluated by using hole cross, open field and thiopental induced sleeping time tests.The antidiarrhoeal activity was observed by castor oil induced diarrhoeal method. In brine shrimp lethality bioassay the extract exhibited moderate cytotoxic activity. In disc diffusion method the extracts displayed moderate activity against tested bacteria. These preliminary screening justify the traditional use of this medicinal plant.
Ecotoxicogenomic Evaluation of Sansevieria roxburghiana Under Lead Ecotoxicogenomic Evaluation of Sansevieria roxburghiana Under Lead Новинка

Ecotoxicogenomic Evaluation of Sansevieria roxburghiana Under Lead

Till now, no study has been reported on acute toxic effects of lead exposure on Sansvieria roxburghiana. In this present investigation, we reveal lead uptake by different plant species, lead accumulation levels and antioxidative potential in plant S.roxburghiana, expression of catalase and SOD activity, lead effects on protein levels and DNA damage by RAPD analysis. Results also predicts how S.roxburghiana plant survived successfully by triggering differential pattern of antioxidative enzyme responses.

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An updated guide to the core concepts of program evaluation This updated edition of Program Evaluation in Practice covers the core concepts of program evaluation and uses case studies to touch on real-world issues that arise when conducting an evaluation project. This important resource is filled with illustrative examples written in accessible terms and provides a wide variety of evaluation projects that can be used for discussion, analysis, and reflection. The book addresses foundations and theories of evaluation, tools and methods for collecting data, writing of reports, and the sharing of findings. The discussion questions and class activities at the end of each chapter are designed to help process the information in that chapter and to integrate the information from the other chapters, thus facilitating the learning process. As useful for students as it is for evaluators in training, Program Evaluation in Practice is a must-have text for those aspiring to be effective evaluators. Includes expanded discussion of basic theories and approaches to program evaluation Features a new chapter on objective-based evaluation and a new section on ethics in program evaluation Provides more detailed information and in-depth description for each case, including evaluation approaches, fresh references, new readings, and the new Joint Committee Standards for Evaluation
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