This book aims to help engineers, Masters students and young researchers to understand and gain a general knowledge of logistic systems optimization problems and techniques, such as system design, layout, stock management, quality management, lot-sizing or scheduling. It summarizes the evaluation and optimization methods used to solve the most frequent problems. In particular, the authors also emphasize some recent and interesting scientific developments, as well as presenting some industrial applications and some solved instances from real-life cases. Performance evaluation tools (Petri nets, the Markov process, discrete event simulation, etc.) and optimization techniques (branch-and-bound, dynamic programming, genetic algorithms, ant colony optimization, etc.) are presented first. Then, new optimization methods are presented to solve systems design problems, layout problems and buffer-sizing optimization. Forecasting methods, inventory optimization, packing problems, lot-sizing quality management and scheduling are presented with examples in the final chapters.