nad analogues as chemical probes



Pedro Merino Chemical Synthesis of Nucleoside Analogues Pedro Merino Chemical Synthesis of Nucleoside Analogues Новинка

Pedro Merino Chemical Synthesis of Nucleoside Analogues

14826.94 руб.
Compiles current tested and proven approaches to synthesize novel nucleoside analogues Featuring contributions from leading synthetic chemists from around the world, this book brings together and describes tested and proven approaches for the chemical synthesis of common families of nucleoside analogues. Readers will learn to create new nucleoside analogues with desired therapeutic properties by using a variety of methods to chemically modify natural nucleosides, including: Changes to the heterocyclic base Modification of substituents at the sugar ring Replacement of the furanose ring by a different carbo- or heterocyclic ring Introduction of conformational restrictions Synthesis of enantiomers Preparation of hydrolitically stable C-nucleosides Chemical Synthesis of Nucleoside Analogues covers all the major classes of nucleosides, including pronucleotides, C-nucleosides, carbanucleosides, and PNA monomers which have shown great promise as starting points for the synthesis of nucleoside analogues. The book also includes experimental procedures for key reactions related to the synthesis of nucleoside analogues, providing a valuable tool for the preparation of a number of different compounds. Throughout the book, chemical schemes and figures help readers better understand the chemical structures of nucleoside analogues and the methods used to synthesize them. Extensive references serve as a gateway to the growing body of original research studies and reviews in the field. Synthetically modified nucleosides have proven their value as therapeutic drugs, in particular as antiviral and antitumor agents. However, many of these nucleoside analogues have undesirable side effects. With Chemical Synthesis of Nucleoside Analogues as their guide, researchers have a new tool for synthesizing a new generation of nucleoside analogues that can be used as therapeutic drugs with fewer unwanted side effects.
R. Sabnis W. Handbook of Fluorescent Dyes and Probes R. Sabnis W. Handbook of Fluorescent Dyes and Probes Новинка

R. Sabnis W. Handbook of Fluorescent Dyes and Probes

13444.25 руб.
A COMPLETE, UP-TO-DATE RESOURCE OF INFORMATION ON MORE THAN 150 FLUORESCENT DYES AND PROBES Handbook of Fluorescent Dyes and Probes is the most comprehensive volume available on the subject, covering all the available dyes and probes known to date in the literature for uses in various fields. Top dye expert Dr. Ram Sabnis organizes the compounds alphabetically by the most commonly used chemical name. He presents an easy-to-use reference complete with novel ideas for breakthrough research in medical, biological, chemical, color, material, physical and related allied fields. The ease of use of the handbook is further enhanced by various appendixes provided at the end of the book to conveniently and easily locate the dye as per the reader's need. This is the first book to give the CAS registry numbers, chemical structure, Chemical Abstract (CA) index name, all other chemical names, Merck Index number, chemical/dye class, molecular formula, molecular weight, physical form, solubility, melting point, boiling point, pKa, absorption maxima, emission maxima, molar extinction coefficient, and quantum yield of fluorescent dyes and probes, as well as to provide access to synthetic procedures (lab scale and industrial scale) of dyes and probes in a single source. This user-friendly handbook also features references on safety, toxicity and adverse effects of dyes and probes on humans, animals and the environment, including: acute/chronic toxicity aquatic toxicity carcinogenicity cytotoxicity ecotoxicity genotoxocity hematotoxicity hepatotoxicity immunotoxicity marine toxicity microbial toxicity mutagenicity nephrotoxicity neurotoxicity nucleic acid damage oral toxicity phototoxicity phytotoxicity reproductive toxicity skin toxicity Containing imaging/labeling applications, biological/medical applications and industrial applications, Handbook of Fluorescent Dyes and Probes is a convenient, vital resource for industrial and academic researchers, and a valuable desktop reference for medical professionals, lab supervisors, scientists, chemists, biologists, engineers, physicists, intellectual property professionals, students, and professors. Includes all fluorescent dyes & probes known to date and provides a complete, up-to-date library of information in one reference/handbook Includes more than 300 fluorescent dyes & probes organized alphabetically by the commonly used Chemical Name Provides access to synthesis procedures (lab scale and industrial scale) of fluorescent dyes & probes First book to provide references on safety, toxicity and adverse effects of fluorescent dyes and probes on humans, animals, and the environment User-friendly and convenient resource guide for chemical, biological, medical, and intellectual property professionals in a broad range of disciplines
Nicholas Long The Chemistry of Molecular Imaging Nicholas Long The Chemistry of Molecular Imaging Новинка

Nicholas Long The Chemistry of Molecular Imaging

11520 руб.
Molecular imaging is primarily about the chemistry of novel biological probes, yet the vast majority of practitioners are not chemists or biochemists. This is the first book, written from a chemist's point of view, to address the nature of the chemical interaction between probe and environment to help elucidate biochemical detail instead of bulk anatomy. Covers all of the fundamentals of modern imaging methodologies, including their techniques and application within medicine and industry Focuses primarily on the chemistry of probes and imaging agents, and chemical methodology for labelling and bioconjugation First book to investigate the chemistry of molecular imaging Aimed at students as well as researchers involved in the area of molecular imaging
Van Rheeden Richard Microdeletions of Human Chromosome 8p Van Rheeden Richard Microdeletions of Human Chromosome 8p Новинка

Van Rheeden Richard Microdeletions of Human Chromosome 8p

4114 руб.
This work covers the production of home brew BAC based FISH probes, as well as an overview of the possible use of these probes in detecting known areas of deletion as well as testing for deletions in cell lines with normal appearing chromosomes. The use of FISH probes is a useful tool in gaining more information from traditional cytogenetic analysis in a research population. The appendices contain several useful protocols for production BAC based FISH probes which may be of benefit to researchers.
Errol Durbach 'Ibsen the Romantic'. Analogues of Paradise in the Later Plays Errol Durbach 'Ibsen the Romantic'. Analogues of Paradise in the Later Plays Новинка

Errol Durbach 'Ibsen the Romantic'. Analogues of Paradise in the Later Plays

7902 руб.
Книга "'Ibsen the Romantic'. Analogues of Paradise in the Later Plays".
Lee Vladimir Ya. Organometallic Compounds of Low-Coordinate Si, Ge, Sn and Pb. From Phantom Species to Stable Compounds Lee Vladimir Ya. Organometallic Compounds of Low-Coordinate Si, Ge, Sn and Pb. From Phantom Species to Stable Compounds Новинка

Lee Vladimir Ya. Organometallic Compounds of Low-Coordinate Si, Ge, Sn and Pb. From Phantom Species to Stable Compounds

17344.3 руб.
Until recently the low-coordinate compounds of the heavier elements of group 14 were known only as transient, unstable species which were difficult to isolate. However recent developments have led to the stabilisation of these compounds and today heavier group 14 element cations, radicals, anions, carbene analogues, alkene and alkyne analogues and aromatics have all been prepared as highly reactive, stable, fully characterizable and readily available organometallic reagents. Organometallic Compounds of Low-Coordinate Si, Ge, Sn and Pb describes the chemistry of this exciting new class of organometallics, with an emphasis on their major similarities and differences with the analogous species in organic chemistry. Topics covered include include the synthesis, structure, reactions and synthetic applications of : Si-, Ge-, Sn and Pb-centered cations, radicals and anions heavy analogues of carbenes: silylenes, germylenes, stannylenes and plumbylenes heavy analogues of alkenes: disilenes, digermenes, distannenes, diplumbenes heavy analogues of alkynes: disilynes, digermynes, distannynes, diplumbynes, and their valence isomers heteronuclear derivatives: silenes, germenes, stannenes, silagermenes, silastannenes, germastannenes heavy analogues of alkenes of the type: >E14=E13-, >E14=E15-, >E14=E16 [where E13, E14, E15 and E16 are elements of the groups 13, 14, 15 and 16] cyclic compounds (three-, four-, five-, and six-membered rings) heavy analogues of 1,3-dienes, allenes and other cumulenes heavy analogues of aromatic compounds; including a comparison between organometallic and organic aromaticity Organometallic Compounds of Low-Coordinate Si, Ge, Sn and Pb is an essential guide to this emerging class of organometallic reagents for researchers and students in main group, organometallic, synthetic and silicon chemistry
Gilles Gasser Inorganic Chemical Biology. Principles, Techniques and Applications Gilles Gasser Inorganic Chemical Biology. Principles, Techniques and Applications Новинка

Gilles Gasser Inorganic Chemical Biology. Principles, Techniques and Applications

14334.79 руб.
Understanding, identifying and influencing the biological systems are the primary objectives of chemical biology. From this perspective, metal complexes have always been of great assistance to chemical biologists, for example, in structural identification and purification of essential biomolecules, for visualizing cellular organelles or to inhibit specific enzymes. This inorganic side of chemical biology, which continues to receive considerable attention, is referred to as inorganic chemical biology. Inorganic Chemical Biology: Principles, Techniques and Applications provides a comprehensive overview of the current and emerging role of metal complexes in chemical biology. Throughout all of the chapters there is a strong emphasis on fundamental theoretical chemistry and experiments that have been carried out in living cells or organisms. Outlooks for the future applications of metal complexes in chemical biology are also discussed. Topics covered include: • Metal complexes as tools for structural biology • IMAC, AAS, XRF and MS as detection techniques for metals in chemical biology • Cell and organism imaging and probing DNA using metal and metal carbonyl complexes • Detection of metal ions, anions and small molecules using metal complexes • Photo-release of metal ions in living cells • Metal complexes as enzyme inhibitors and catalysts in living cells Written by a team of international experts, Inorganic Chemical Biology: Principles, Techniques and Applications is a must-have for bioinorganic, bioorganometallic and medicinal chemists as well as chemical biologists working in both academia and industry.
Meena Wadhwani Photochemical oxidation of some carbohydrates Meena Wadhwani Photochemical oxidation of some carbohydrates Новинка

Meena Wadhwani Photochemical oxidation of some carbohydrates

3167 руб.
Photochemistry and chemical kinetics are two separate branches of chemical science. Till date these two are studied separately. But each and every chemical as well as physical change is associated with kinetic study. Therefore an attempt has been made to consider the simultaneous study of a chemical reaction including the photochemical oxidation of some carbohydrates. As the selected compounds are biomolecules, the studies will be equally fruitful in life science as well. The proposed work has industrial significance also for pharmaceutical chemistry, synthetic organic chemistry as well as biochemistry. The work will broaden the studies in technical, chemical and biochemical aspects in the various ways. This book therefore provides a new vision to the research scholars in the field of chemical science.
Marcus Wilhelmsson Fluorescent Analogs of Biomolecular Building Blocks. Design and Applications Marcus Wilhelmsson Fluorescent Analogs of Biomolecular Building Blocks. Design and Applications Новинка

Marcus Wilhelmsson Fluorescent Analogs of Biomolecular Building Blocks. Design and Applications

13444.25 руб.
Fluorescent Biomolecules and their Building Blocks focuses on the design of fluorescent probes for the four major families of macromolecular building blocks. Compiling the expertise of multiple authors, this book moves from introductory chapters to an exploration of the design, synthesis, and implementation of new fluorescent analogues of biomolecular building blocks, including examples of small-molecule fluorophores and sensors that are part of biomolecular assemblies.
Ресивер NAD T187 Ресивер NAD T187 Новинка

Ресивер NAD T187

52074 руб.
Tania Rizvi,Liaqat Ali and Farzana Shaheen Total Syntheses of Sansalvamide A, Cherimolapeptide C, E, & Analogues Tania Rizvi,Liaqat Ali and Farzana Shaheen Total Syntheses of Sansalvamide A, Cherimolapeptide C, E, & Analogues Новинка

Tania Rizvi,Liaqat Ali and Farzana Shaheen Total Syntheses of Sansalvamide A, Cherimolapeptide C, E, & Analogues

3944 руб.
Cherimolacyclopeptides are a class of cytotoxic cyclic peptides which exhibited significant activities against the human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell culture system. The synthesis and study of cyclic peptide analogues presents a powerful move in the design and discovery of novel peptide drugs. Thus, the solid-phase syntheses of cherimolacyclopeptide E, cherimolacyclopeptide C, sansalvamide A, and the alanine-substituted analogues of cherimolacyclopeptide E were carried out in the present study. The synthetic cyclic peptides were then subjected to KB and MDA-MB-231 cell lines to examine the effect of side chain on the anticancer potential. The results indicated a significant enhancement in the activity of the analogues as compared to the parent peptide. The present study thus provides a new insight into peptide analogues and is especially useful for the scientific community involved in Solid-Phase Peptide Synthesis and anticancer activities or any one else who may be interested in alanine-scanning analogues.
Peter Wasserscheid Chemical Technology. An Integral Textbook Peter Wasserscheid Chemical Technology. An Integral Textbook Новинка

Peter Wasserscheid Chemical Technology. An Integral Textbook

8374.14 руб.
This textbook provides an integral and integrated treatment of industrial-relevant problems for students of both chemistry and chemical engineering. As such, this work combines the four disciplines of chemical technology – chemistry, thermal and mechanical unit operations, chemical reaction engineering and general chemical technology – and is organized into two main parts. The first covers the fundamentals, as well as the analysis and design of industrial processes, while the second section presents 20 concrete processes, exemplifying the inherent applied nature of chemical technology. These are selected so that they all differ with respect to at least one important aspect, such as the type and design of the reactor, the chemistry involved or the separation process used. As a result, readers will recapitulate, deepen and exercise the chemical and engineering principles and their interplay, as well as being able to apply them to industrial practice. Instructive figures, rules of thumb for swift but reliable estimating of parameters, data of chemical media, and examples utilizing data from industrial processes facilitate and enhance the study process. A small general survey of selected modern trends, such as multifunctional and micro reactors, or new solvents for homogeneous catalysis, such as ionic liquids, point out to the reader that this is not a concluded discipline, but a developing field with many challenges waiting to be solved.
Andrea Trabocchi Diversity-Oriented Synthesis. Basics and Applications in Organic Synthesis, Drug Discovery, and Chemical Biology Andrea Trabocchi Diversity-Oriented Synthesis. Basics and Applications in Organic Synthesis, Drug Discovery, and Chemical Biology Новинка

Andrea Trabocchi Diversity-Oriented Synthesis. Basics and Applications in Organic Synthesis, Drug Discovery, and Chemical Biology

12292.61 руб.
Discover an enhanced synthetic approach to developing and screening chemical compound libraries Diversity-oriented synthesis is a new paradigm for developing large collections of structurally diverse small molecules as probes to investigate biological pathways. This book presents the most effective methods in diversity-oriented synthesis for creating small molecule collections. It offers tested and proven strategies for developing diversity-oriented synthetic libraries and screening methods for identifying ligands. Lastly, it explores some promising new applications based on diversity-oriented synthesis that have the potential to dramatically advance studies in drug discovery and chemical biology. Diversity-Oriented Synthesis begins with an introductory chapter that explores the basics, including a discussion of the relationship between diversity-oriented synthesis and classic combinatorial chemistry. Divided into four parts, the book: Offers key chemical methods for the generation of small molecules using diversity-oriented principles, including peptidomimetics and macrocycles Expands on the concept of diversity-oriented synthesis by describing chemical libraries Provides modern approaches to screening diversity-oriented synthetic libraries, including high-throughput and high-content screening, small molecule microarrays, and smart screening assays Presents the applications of diversity-oriented synthetic libraries and small molecules in drug discovery and chemical biology, reporting the results of key studies and forecasting the role of diversity-oriented synthesis in future biomedical research This book has been written and edited by leading international experts in organic synthesis and its applications. Their contributions are based on a thorough review of the current literature as well as their own firsthand experience developing synthetic methods and applications. Clearly written and extensively referenced, Diversity-Oriented Synthesis introduces novices to this highly promising field of research and serves as a springboard for experts to advance their own research studies and develop new applications.
Arun Persaud Aligned Ion Implantation Using Scanning Probes Arun Persaud Aligned Ion Implantation Using Scanning Probes Новинка

Arun Persaud Aligned Ion Implantation Using Scanning Probes

8127 руб.
Книга "Aligned Ion Implantation Using Scanning Probes".
Nady Braidy NAD+ metabolism in neurodegeneration and ageing Nady Braidy NAD+ metabolism in neurodegeneration and ageing Новинка

Nady Braidy NAD+ metabolism in neurodegeneration and ageing

7850 руб.
Elevated levels of several kynurenine pathway (KP) metabolites, e.g. quinolinic acid (QUIN), have been implicated in the aetiology of several neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and Multiple Sclerosis (MS). The end product of the Kynurenine Pathway is NAD+, an essential cofactor for energy metabolism. NAD+ also serves as the sole substrate for the DNA repair enzyme, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). More recently, NAD+ has been identified as an essential substrate for a new class of histone deacetylases known as SIRT1, which has been linked to longevity. Free radical mediated PARP activation and NAD+ depletion may contribute to brain aging and tissue damage in multiple brain disorders. Dealing with an ageing population is a significant challenge for health systems and economies around the world, and strategies to delay or reverse individual age-associated disorders are the subject of intense interest. Dr Braidy’s work proposes multiple strategies that will broadly treat age-related disorders by promoting cellular NAD+ anabolism.
Frank Weinhold Classical and Geometrical Theory of Chemical and Phase Thermodynamics Frank Weinhold Classical and Geometrical Theory of Chemical and Phase Thermodynamics Новинка

Frank Weinhold Classical and Geometrical Theory of Chemical and Phase Thermodynamics

13701.21 руб.
Because it is grounded in math, chemical thermodynamics is often perceived as a difficult subject and many students are never fully comfortable with it. The first authoritative textbook presentation of equilibrium chemical and phase thermodynamics in a reformulated geometrical framework, Chemical and Phase Thermodynamics shows how this famously difficult subject can be accurately expressed with only elementary high-school geometry concepts. Featuring numerous suggestions for research-level extensions, this simplified alternative to standard calculus-based thermodynamics expositions is perfect for undergraduate and beginning graduate students as well as researchers.
Alireza Bahadori Waste Management in the Chemical and Petroleum Industries Alireza Bahadori Waste Management in the Chemical and Petroleum Industries Новинка

Alireza Bahadori Waste Management in the Chemical and Petroleum Industries

13067.62 руб.
The global chemical and petroleum industries have always had the challenge of disposing of chemical wastes, by-products, and residuals, but with traditional techniques such as deep well injection and incineration proving flawed, the need for disposal by legal, safe and economically effective means has never been greater. Increasingly, the need to produce without pollution is the preferred model for industry, and the strategy of waste minimization is seen as the best way forward. This is particularly relevant in the petrochemical and chemical industries, where large quantities of hazardous and toxic wastes are produced which can pose formidable disposal problems. Covering the essentials of treatment, recovery and disposal of waste, as well as the requirements for process design and engineering of equipment and facilities in the chemical and petroleum industries, this book includes chapters on: Wastewater Treatment Physical Unit Operations Chemical Treatment Biological Treatment Wastewater Treatment in Unconventional Oil and Gas Industries Wastewater Sewer Systems Sewage Treatment Solid Waste Treatment and Disposal Primarily aimed at researchers and advanced students in chemical, petroleum, and environmental fields as well as those in civil engineering, this book should also provide a unique reference for industry practitioners and anyone interested in chemical and petroleum waste treatment and disposal.
Rory McTurk Studies in Ragnar's Saga Lodbrokar and Its Major Scandinavian Analogues Rory McTurk Studies in Ragnar's Saga Lodbrokar and Its Major Scandinavian Analogues Новинка

Rory McTurk Studies in Ragnar's Saga Lodbrokar and Its Major Scandinavian Analogues

2427 руб.
Книга "Studies in "Ragnar's Saga Lodbrokar" and Its Major Scandinavian Analogues".
Фрэнсис Элиза Бёрнетт Pillapallamaja Фрэнсис Элиза Бёрнетт Pillapallamaja Новинка

Фрэнсис Элиза Бёрнетт Pillapallamaja

353.51 руб.
See lugu on nukuperekonnast, kes mulle meeldis, ja nukuperekonnast, keda ma ei sallinud. Selle looga tahan sulle selgeks teha, et kui sa arvad, et nukud ei tee kunagi midagi, kui sina seda ei näe, siis eksid väga. Kui inimesed neid ei vaata, teevad nad kõike, mida tahavad. Nad oskavad tantsida ja laulda ja klaverit mängida ja kõiksugu lõbusaid asju teha. Kuid nad suudavad liikuda ja rääkida ainult siis, kui inimesed selja pööravad ega vaata. Kui keegi piilub, jäävad nad seisma. Haldjad teavad seda ja muidugi külastavad kõiki nukumaju, kus elavad meeldivad nukud. Kuid nad ei käi läbi nukkudega, kes polekenad. Nad ei lähe kunagi külla ega jäta oma visiitkaarte nukumajadesse, kus nukud on uhked või halva iseloomuga. Nad on väga nõudlikud. Kui oled upsakas või tige, ei saa sa elu jooksul ainsatki haldjat näha.
Mukesh C. Sharma and Smita Sharma Rational Drug Design of Substituted Analogues Angiotensin II Receptor Mukesh C. Sharma and Smita Sharma Rational Drug Design of Substituted Analogues Angiotensin II Receptor Новинка

Mukesh C. Sharma and Smita Sharma Rational Drug Design of Substituted Analogues Angiotensin II Receptor

4358 руб.
Hypertension has become one of the most important preventable causes for premature morbidity and mortality worldwide. To identify novel and potent antihypertensive ligands, initially 2D-QSAR, Group based QSAR, kNN based 3D-QSAR and pharmacophore were generated using namely, a series of triazolinone, quinazolinone, and benzimidazole derivatives of as Angiotensin II AT1 Receptor. In conclusion, the models developed to predict the structural features of substituted analogues angiotensin II receptor antagonists, reveals useful information about the structural features requirement for the molecule.
Probes voltage FELO 58000200 Probes voltage FELO 58000200 Новинка
Bruce Finlayson A. Introduction to Chemical Engineering Computing Bruce Finlayson A. Introduction to Chemical Engineering Computing Новинка

Bruce Finlayson A. Introduction to Chemical Engineering Computing

4758.88 руб.
Step-by-step instructions enable chemical engineers to master key software programs and solve complex problems Today, both students and professionals in chemical engineering must solve increasingly complex problems dealing with refineries, fuel cells, microreactors, and pharmaceutical plants, to name a few. With this book as their guide, readers learn to solve these problems using their computers and Excel, MATLAB, Aspen Plus, and COMSOL Multiphysics. Moreover, they learn how to check their solutions and validate their results to make sure they have solved the problems correctly. Now in its Second Edition, Introduction to Chemical Engineering Computing is based on the author’s firsthand teaching experience. As a result, the emphasis is on problem solving. Simple introductions help readers become conversant with each program and then tackle a broad range of problems in chemical engineering, including: Equations of state Chemical reaction equilibria Mass balances with recycle streams Thermodynamics and simulation of mass transfer equipment Process simulation Fluid flow in two and three dimensions All the chapters contain clear instructions, figures, and examples to guide readers through all the programs and types of chemical engineering problems. Problems at the end of each chapter, ranging from simple to difficult, allow readers to gradually build their skills, whether they solve the problems themselves or in teams. In addition, the book’s accompanying website lists the core principles learned from each problem, both from a chemical engineering and a computational perspective. Covering a broad range of disciplines and problems within chemical engineering, Introduction to Chemical Engineering Computing is recommended for both undergraduate and graduate students as well as practicing engineers who want to know how to choose the right computer software program and tackle almost any chemical engineering problem.
K. Venkateswara Rao and C.S. Sunandana Combustion & Chemical Bath Deposition of Nanopowders and Thin Films K. Venkateswara Rao and C.S. Sunandana Combustion & Chemical Bath Deposition of Nanopowders and Thin Films Новинка

K. Venkateswara Rao and C.S. Sunandana Combustion & Chemical Bath Deposition of Nanopowders and Thin Films

6359 руб.
The general theme of this work is broadly divided into three parts I. Synthesis of transition oxide nano materials of (NiO, Co3O4) and MgO by chemical combustion method for different fuel to oxidizer ratio (0<Ψ<2) in the steps of 0.25) and studies of their structural, electron paramagnetic resonance, optical and microscopic properties. II. Synthesis of diluted antiferromagnetic systems Mg1-xMxO (M=Ni, Co) (0<x<1) by chemical combustion method and studies of their structural, electron paramagnetic resonance and microscopic properties. III. Fabrication of transition oxide nano crystalline thin films by chemical bath deposition and studies of their structural, optical and microscopic properties Various experimental probes have been utilized for the following characterization studies such as, (1) Structural: X-ray diffraction (2) Microscopic: Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) (3) Susceptibility (magnetic studies): Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) (4) BET surface area: Specific surface area (5) Optical: UV-Visible spectrophotometer and FTIR
Sallie McFague Models of God Sallie McFague Models of God Новинка

Sallie McFague Models of God

3227 руб.
In this award-winning text, theologian Sallie McFague challenges Christians' usual speech about God as a kind of monarch. She probes instead three other possible metaphors for God—as mother, lover, and friend.
Do Duong D. Applied Mathematics And Modeling For Chemical Engineers Do Duong D. Applied Mathematics And Modeling For Chemical Engineers Новинка

Do Duong D. Applied Mathematics And Modeling For Chemical Engineers

10533.3 руб.
Enables chemical engineers to use mathematics to solve common on-the-job problems With its clear explanations, examples, and problem sets, Applied Mathematics and Modeling for Chemical Engineers has enabled thousands of chemical engineers to apply mathematical principles to successfully solve practical problems. The book introduces traditional techniques to solve ordinary differential equations as well as analytical methods to deal with important classes of finite-difference equations. It then explores techniques for solving partial differential equations from classical methods to finite-transforms, culminating with??numerical methods??including orthogonal collocation. This Second Edition demonstrates how classical mathematics solves a broad range of new applications that have arisen since the publication of the acclaimed first edition. Readers will find new materials and problems dealing with such topics as: Brain implant drug delivery Carbon dioxide storage Chemical reactions in nanotubes Dissolution of pills and pharmaceutical capsules Honeycomb reactors used in catalytic converters New models of physical phenomena such as bubble coalescence Like the first edition, this Second Edition provides plenty of worked examples that explain each step on the way to finding a problem's solution. Homework problems at the end of each chapter are designed to encourage readers to more deeply examine the underlying logic of the mathematical techniques used to arrive at the answers. Readers can refer to the references, also at the end of each chapter, to explore individual topics in greater depth. Finally, the text's appendices provide additional information on numerical methods for solving algebraic equations as well as a detailed explanation of numerical integration algorithms. Applied Mathematics and Modeling for Chemical Engineers is recommended for all students in chemical engineering as well as professional chemical engineers who want to improve their ability to use mathematics to solve common on-the-job problems.
Nad Sylvan Nad Sylvan. The Bride Said No (2 LP) Nad Sylvan Nad Sylvan. The Bride Said No (2 LP) Новинка

Nad Sylvan Nad Sylvan. The Bride Said No (2 LP)

2576 руб.
Side 1: Tracks 1-4 Side 2: Tracks 5-7 Side 3: Track 8 Side 4: Track 9
Root Thatcher W. Introduction to Chemical Engineering Kinetics and Reactor Design Root Thatcher W. Introduction to Chemical Engineering Kinetics and Reactor Design Новинка

Root Thatcher W. Introduction to Chemical Engineering Kinetics and Reactor Design

11875.7 руб.
The Second Edition features new problems that engage readers in contemporary reactor design Highly praised by instructors, students, and chemical engineers, Introduction to Chemical Engineering Kinetics & Reactor Design has been extensively revised and updated in this Second Edition. The text continues to offer a solid background in chemical reaction kinetics as well as in material and energy balances, preparing readers with the foundation necessary for success in the design of chemical reactors. Moreover, it reflects not only the basic engineering science, but also the mathematical tools used by today’s engineers to solve problems associated with the design of chemical reactors. Introduction to Chemical Engineering Kinetics & Reactor Design enables readers to progressively build their knowledge and skills by applying the laws of conservation of mass and energy to increasingly more difficult challenges in reactor design. The first one-third of the text emphasizes general principles of chemical reaction kinetics, setting the stage for the subsequent treatment of reactors intended to carry out homogeneous reactions, heterogeneous catalytic reactions, and biochemical transformations. Topics include: Thermodynamics of chemical reactions Determination of reaction rate expressions Elements of heterogeneous catalysis Basic concepts in reactor design and ideal reactor models Temperature and energy effects in chemical reactors Basic and applied aspects of biochemical transformations and bioreactors About 70% of the problems in this Second Edition are new. These problems, frequently based on articles culled from the research literature, help readers develop a solid understanding of the material. Many of these new problems also offer readers opportunities to use current software applications such as Mathcad and MATLAB®. By enabling readers to progressively build and apply their knowledge, the Second Edition of Introduction to Chemical Engineering Kinetics & Reactor Design remains a premier text for students in chemical engineering and a valuable resource for practicing engineers.
CCPS (Center for Chemical Process Safety) Guidelines for Safe Automation of Chemical Processes CCPS (Center for Chemical Process Safety) Guidelines for Safe Automation of Chemical Processes Новинка

CCPS (Center for Chemical Process Safety) Guidelines for Safe Automation of Chemical Processes

15443.56 руб.
This book provides designers and operators of chemical process facilities with a general philosophy and approach to safe automation, including independent layers of safety. An expanded edition, this book includes a revision of original concepts as well as chapters that address new topics such as use of wireless automation and Safety Instrumented Systems. This book also provides an extensive bibliography to related publications and topic-specific information.
Dinner Aaron R. Advances in Chemical Physics Dinner Aaron R. Advances in Chemical Physics Новинка

Dinner Aaron R. Advances in Chemical Physics

16389.97 руб.
Detailed reviews of new and emerging topics in chemical physics presented by leading experts The Advances in Chemical Physics series is dedicated to reviewing new and emerging topics as well as the latest developments in traditional areas of study in the field of chemical physics. Each volume features detailed comprehensive analyses coupled with individual points of view that integrate the many disciplines of science that are needed for a full understanding of chemical physics. Volume 153 of Advances in Chemical Physics features six expertly written contributions: Recent advances of ultrafast X-ray absorption spectroscopy for molecules in solution Scaling perspective on intramolecular vibrational energy flow: analogies, insights, and challenges Longest relaxation time of relaxation processes for classical and quantum Brownian motion in a potential escape rate theory approach Local fluctuations in solution: theory and applications Macroscopic effects of microscopic heterogeneity Ab initio methodology for pseudospin Hamiltonians of anisotropic magnetic centers Reviews published in Advances in Chemical Physics are typically longer than those published in journals, providing the space needed for readers to fully grasp the topic: the fundamentals as well as the latest discoveries, applications, and emerging avenues of research. Extensive cross-referencing enables readers to explore the primary research studies underlying each topic. Advances in Chemical Physics is ideal for introducing novices to topics in chemical physics. Moreover, the series provides the foundation needed for more experienced researchers to advance their own research studies and continue to expand the boundaries of our knowledge in chemical physics.
Роберт Кийосаки Rikka Isa edulood Роберт Кийосаки Rikka Isa edulood Новинка

Роберт Кийосаки Rikka Isa edulood

432.23 руб.
Menukite „Rikas isa, vaene isa” ja „Rahavoo kvadrant” järg. Rikka isa õpetusi järginud inimesed jutustavad selles oma edulugusid, kuidas nad leidsid oma tee rahalise edukuseni. Nad võtsid endale vastutuse oma finantshariduse ja -tuleviku eest. Paljud inimesed saavutasid edu, sest tegutsesid, õppisid, omandasid kogemusi ja tarkust. Nüüd mõistavad nad varade hankimise tähtsust ning teevad vahet heal ja halval võlal. Nende investeeringud toovad tulu ja nüüd elavad nad õnnelikult.
Ji Zhang Macrocyclic Polyamines. Synthesis and Applications Ji Zhang Macrocyclic Polyamines. Synthesis and Applications Новинка

Ji Zhang Macrocyclic Polyamines. Synthesis and Applications

12676.73 руб.
The first comprehensive book focusing on synthesis and applications of macrocyclic polyamines and their derivatives Macrocyclic polyamines are a class of widely used important compounds. This is the first book that systematically summarizes the synthesis and applications of macrocyclic polyamines and their analogues, including the properties and synthetic methods of macrocyclic polyamines, chemical nucleases based on macrocyclic polyamines, the derivatives of macrocyclic polyamines as nano-vector materials, macrocyclic polyamines derivatives for bio-imaging, chemical sensors based on macrocyclic polyamines, and other applications of macrocyclic polyamines. Macrocyclic Polyamines: Synthesis and Applications includes most of the studies involving macrocyclic polyamines and their derivatives, and may be used as a reference for the researchers in related fields. It offers in-depth coverage of cyclization modes; special procedures for tetraza macrocyclic compounds; diacids-diamines condensation; oxidative DNA cleaving by macrocyclic polyamines; lipids with cationic MPA headgroups; the derivatives of DOTA, DO3A, and PCTA; receptors for anions; sensors for bioactive molecules; macrocyclic polyamines for solvent extraction and membrane transport of amino acids and their derivatives, electrophoretic separation, and open-tubular CEC; and much more. The first book that systematically summarizes the chemistry of macrocyclic polyamines and their derivatives in terms of synthetic methods for their preparation, functionalization, and application in the main fields of chemical sensors, chemical nucleases, drug-delivery, bio-imaging and vector materials Provides a comprehensive reference for the researchers working on macrocyclic polyamines Offers train of thought in related research fields such as organic chemistry, coordination chemistry, analytical chemistry, supramolecular chemistry, biomaterials, etc. Macrocyclic Polyamines: Synthesis and Applications will not only provide a reference for the researchers working on macrocyclic polyamines, but also offer opportunities for researchers in related research fields to understand the benefits of these key compounds.
John Joseph Griffin Chemical Handicraft. A Classified and Descriptive Catalogue Of Chemical Apparatus, Suitable for the Performance Of Class Experiments, for Every Process Of Chemical Research and for Chemical Testing in the Arts. Accompanied by Copious Notes, Explan... John Joseph Griffin Chemical Handicraft. A Classified and Descriptive Catalogue Of Chemical Apparatus, Suitable for the Performance Of Class Experiments, for Every Process Of Chemical Research and for Chemical Testing in the Arts. Accompanied by Copious Notes, Explan... Новинка

John Joseph Griffin Chemical Handicraft. A Classified and Descriptive Catalogue Of Chemical Apparatus, Suitable for the Performance Of Class Experiments, for Every Process Of Chemical Research and for Chemical Testing in the Arts. Accompanied by Copious Notes, Explan...

2189 руб.
Книга "Chemical Handicraft. A Classified and Descriptive Catalogue Of Chemical Apparatus, Suitable for the Performance Of Class Experiments, for Every Process Of Chemical Research and for Chemical Testing in the Arts. Accompanied by Copious Notes, Explanatory Of".This work has been selected by scholars as being culturally important, and is part of the knowledge base of civilization as we know it. This work was reproduced from the original artifact, and remains as true to the original work as possible. Therefore, you will see the original copyright references, library stamps (as most of these works have been housed in our most important libraries around the world), and other notations in the work.This work is in the public domain in the United States of America, and possibly other nations. Within the United States, you may freely copy and distribute this work, as no entity (individual or corporate) has a copyright on the body of the work.As a reproduction of a historical artifact, this work may contain missing or blurred pages, poor pictures, errant marks, etc. Scholars believe, and we concur, that this work is important enough to be preserved, reproduced, and made generally available to the public. We appreciate your support of the preservation process, and thank you for being an important part of keeping this knowledge alive and relevant.
Florian Heuser Increasing the Productivity of Whole Cell Biotransformation by Enhancing the intracellular NAD(H) Concentration Florian Heuser Increasing the Productivity of Whole Cell Biotransformation by Enhancing the intracellular NAD(H) Concentration Новинка

Florian Heuser Increasing the Productivity of Whole Cell Biotransformation by Enhancing the intracellular NAD(H) Concentration

2839 руб.
Doctoral Thesis / Dissertation from the year 2007 in the subject Biology - Micro- and Molecular Biology, grade: magna cum laude, University of Dusseldorf "Heinrich Heine" (Institut für Biotechnologie I, Forschungszentrum Jülich), language: English, abstract: The aim of this work was to limit the intracellular NAD turnover and to increase the intracellular NAD concentration in Escherichia coli in order to construct a strain characterized by higher productivity and improved long-term stability in the reductive whole-cell biotransformation. To this end, first the genes yrfE and yjaD were deleted, which code for the NADH-pyrophosphatases that probably play a part in intracellular NAD degradation. After deletion of these genes, the specific activity of the NADH-pyrophosphatase in the raw extract was reduced by 70%. By overexpressing the genes pncB and nadE from the NAD biosynthesis it was possible to double the intracellular NAD concentration. The joint overexpression of the two genes increased the NAD pool by a factor of seven.A recombinant strain of E. coli for obtaining mannitol from fructose was the reference system for studying whether the mutations in the NAD metabolism influenced the long-term stability of whole-cell transformations. Here, fructose was reduced to mannitol by a mannitol dehydrogenase from Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides. The cofactor NADH was regenerated by a formate dehydrogenase from Mycobacterium vaccae N10. The uptake of fructose was made possibl...
James W. Perry Chemical Russian, Self-Taught - Contributions to Chemical Education Number Four James W. Perry Chemical Russian, Self-Taught - Contributions to Chemical Education Number Four Новинка

James W. Perry Chemical Russian, Self-Taught - Contributions to Chemical Education Number Four

3039 руб.
Книга "Chemical Russian, Self-Taught - Contributions to Chemical Education Number Four".
John Joseph Griffin Chemical Handicraft. A Classified and Descriptive Catalogue Of Chemical Apparatus, Suitable for the Performance Of Class Experiments, for Every Process Of Chemical Research and for Chemical Testing in the Arts. Accompanied by Copious Notes, Explan... John Joseph Griffin Chemical Handicraft. A Classified and Descriptive Catalogue Of Chemical Apparatus, Suitable for the Performance Of Class Experiments, for Every Process Of Chemical Research and for Chemical Testing in the Arts. Accompanied by Copious Notes, Explan... Новинка

John Joseph Griffin Chemical Handicraft. A Classified and Descriptive Catalogue Of Chemical Apparatus, Suitable for the Performance Of Class Experiments, for Every Process Of Chemical Research and for Chemical Testing in the Arts. Accompanied by Copious Notes, Explan...

2427 руб.
Книга "Chemical Handicraft. A Classified and Descriptive Catalogue Of Chemical Apparatus, Suitable for the Performance Of Class Experiments, for Every Process Of Chemical Research and for Chemical Testing in the Arts. Accompanied by Copious Notes, Explanatory Of".This work has been selected by scholars as being culturally important, and is part of the knowledge base of civilization as we know it. This work was reproduced from the original artifact, and remains as true to the original work as possible. Therefore, you will see the original copyright references, library stamps (as most of these works have been housed in our most important libraries around the world), and other notations in the work.This work is in the public domain in the United States of America, and possibly other nations. Within the United States, you may freely copy and distribute this work, as no entity (individual or corporate) has a copyright on the body of the work.As a reproduction of a historical artifact, this work may contain missing or blurred pages, poor pictures, errant marks, etc. Scholars believe, and we concur, that this work is important enough to be preserved, reproduced, and made generally available to the public. We appreciate your support of the preservation process, and thank you for being an important part of keeping this knowledge alive and relevant.
Oscar Oldberg Pharmaceutical and Chemical Problems and Exercises. With Explanatory Text; Including Pharmaceutical and Chemical Arithmetic, Weights and Measures, Specific Density and Specific Volume, and Chemical Notation and Nomenclature, Chemical Equations, Pr... Oscar Oldberg Pharmaceutical and Chemical Problems and Exercises. With Explanatory Text; Including Pharmaceutical and Chemical Arithmetic, Weights and Measures, Specific Density and Specific Volume, and Chemical Notation and Nomenclature, Chemical Equations, Pr... Новинка

Oscar Oldberg Pharmaceutical and Chemical Problems and Exercises. With Explanatory Text; Including Pharmaceutical and Chemical Arithmetic, Weights and Measures, Specific Density and Specific Volume, and Chemical Notation and Nomenclature, Chemical Equations, Pr...

2164 руб.
Книга "Pharmaceutical and Chemical Problems and Exercises. With Explanatory Text; Including Pharmaceutical and Chemical Arithmetic, Weights and Measures, Specific Density and Specific Volume, and Chemical Notation and Nomenclature, Chemical Equations, Problems I".This work has been selected by scholars as being culturally important, and is part of the knowledge base of civilization as we know it. This work was reproduced from the original artifact, and remains as true to the original work as possible. Therefore, you will see the original copyright references, library stamps (as most of these works have been housed in our most important libraries around the world), and other notations in the work.This work is in the public domain in the United States of America, and possibly other nations. Within the United States, you may freely copy and distribute this work, as no entity (individual or corporate) has a copyright on the body of the work.As a reproduction of a historical artifact, this work may contain missing or blurred pages, poor pictures, errant marks, etc. Scholars believe, and we concur, that this work is important enough to be preserved, reproduced, and made generally available to the public. We appreciate your support of the preservation process, and thank you for being an important part of keeping this knowledge alive and relevant.
Ambroise-Auguste Liébeault Le sommeil provoque et les etats analogues Ambroise-Auguste Liébeault Le sommeil provoque et les etats analogues Новинка

Ambroise-Auguste Liébeault Le sommeil provoque et les etats analogues

823 руб.
Книга "Le sommeil provoqué et les états analogues".Эта книга — репринт оригинального издания (издательство "O. Doin", 1889 год), созданный на основе электронной копии высокого разрешения, которую очистили и обработали вручную, сохранив структуру и орфографию оригинального издания. Редкие, забытые и малоизвестные книги, изданные с петровских времен до наших дней, вновь доступны в виде печатных книг.
Alberto Pistocchi GIS Based Chemical Fate Modeling. Principles and Applications Alberto Pistocchi GIS Based Chemical Fate Modeling. Principles and Applications Новинка

Alberto Pistocchi GIS Based Chemical Fate Modeling. Principles and Applications

12667.68 руб.
Explains how GIS enhances the development of chemical fate and transport models Over the past decade, researchers have discovered that geographic information systems (GIS) are not only excellent tools for managing and displaying maps, but also useful in the analysis of chemical fate and transport in the environment. Among its many benefits, GIS facilitates the identification of critical factors that drive chemical fate and transport. Moreover, GIS makes it easier to communicate and explain key model assumptions. Based on the author's firsthand experience in environmental assessment, GIS Based Chemical Fate Modeling explores both GIS and chemical fate and transport modeling fundamentals, creating an interface between the two domains. It then explains how GIS analytical functions enable scientists to develop simple, yet comprehensive spatially explicit chemical fate and transport models that support real-world applications. In addition, the book features: Practical examples of GIS based model calculations that serve as templates for the development of new applications Exercises enabling readers to create their own GIS based models Accompanying website featuring downloadable datasets used in the book's examples and exercises References to the literature, websites, data repositories, and online reports to facilitate further research Coverage of important topics such as spatial decision support systems and multi-criteria analysis as well as ecological and human health risk assessment in a spatial context GIS Based Chemical Fate Modeling makes a unique contribution to the environmental sciences by explaining how GIS analytical functions enhance the development and interpretation of chemical fate and transport models. Environmental scientists should turn to this book to gain a deeper understanding of the role of GIS in describing what happens to chemicals when they are released into the environment.
George DeLancey Principles of Chemical Engineering Practice George DeLancey Principles of Chemical Engineering Practice Новинка

George DeLancey Principles of Chemical Engineering Practice

14809.97 руб.
Enables chemical engineering students to bridge theory and practice Integrating scientific principles with practical engineering experience, this text enables readers to master the fundamentals of chemical processing and apply their knowledge of such topics as material and energy balances, transport phenomena, reactor design, and separations across a broad range of chemical industries. The author skillfully guides readers step by step through the execution of both chemical process analysis and equipment design. Principles of Chemical Engineering Practice is divided into two sections: the Macroscopic View and the Microscopic View. The Macroscopic View examines equipment design and behavior from the vantage point of inlet and outlet conditions. The Microscopic View is focused on the equipment interior resulting from conditions prevailing at the equipment boundaries. As readers progress through the text, they'll learn to master such chemical engineering operations and equipment as: Separators to divide a mixture into parts with desirable concentrations Reactors to produce chemicals with needed properties Pressure changers to create favorable equilibrium and rate conditions Temperature changers and heat exchangers to regulate and change the temperature of process streams Throughout the book, the author sets forth examples that refer to a detailed simulation of a process for the manufacture of acrylic acid that provides a unifying thread for equipment sizing in context. The manufacture of hexyl glucoside provides a thread for process design and synthesis. Presenting basic thermodynamics, Principles of Chemical Engineering Practice enables students in chemical engineering and related disciplines to master and apply the fundamentals and to proceed to more advanced studies in chemical engineering.
Maria Konopnicka Nad Ticino Maria Konopnicka Nad Ticino Новинка
Mohd. Kamaruddin Abd. Hamid Aspen HYSYS: An Introduction to Chemical Engineering Simulation Mohd. Kamaruddin Abd. Hamid Aspen HYSYS: An Introduction to Chemical Engineering Simulation Новинка

Mohd. Kamaruddin Abd. Hamid Aspen HYSYS: An Introduction to Chemical Engineering Simulation

5473 руб.
Aspen HYSYS: An Introduction to Chemical Engineering Simulations is intended for students who are using Aspen HYSYS for the first time and have little or no experience in computer simulation. It can be used as a textbook in freshmen chemical engineering courses, or workshops where Aspen HYSYS is being taught. The book can also serve as a reference in more advanced chemical engineering courses when Aspen HYSYS is used as a tool for simulation and solving problems. It also can be used for self study of Aspen HYSYS by students and practicing engineers. In addition, the book can be a supplement or a secondary book in courses where Aspen HYSYS is used, but the instructor does not have time to cover it extensively.
Chiarabelli Cristiano Chemical Synthetic Biology Chiarabelli Cristiano Chemical Synthetic Biology Новинка

Chiarabelli Cristiano Chemical Synthetic Biology

13463.61 руб.
Chemistry plays a very important role in the emerging field of synthetic biology. In particular, chemical synthetic biology is concerned with the synthesis of chemical structures, such as proteins, that do not exist in nature. With contributions from leading international experts, Chemical Synthetic Biology shows how chemistry underpins synthetic biology. The book is an essential guide to this fascinating new field, and will find a place on the bookshelves of researchers and students working in synthetic chemistry, synthetic and molecular biology, bioengineering, systems biology, computational genomics, and bioinformatics.

кешбака
Страницы:


A COMPLETE, UP-TO-DATE RESOURCE OF INFORMATION ON MORE THAN 150 FLUORESCENT DYES AND PROBES Handbook of Fluorescent Dyes and Probes is the most comprehensive volume available on the subject, covering all the available dyes and probes known to date in the literature for uses in various fields. Top dye expert Dr. Ram Sabnis organizes the compounds alphabetically by the most commonly used chemical name. He presents an easy-to-use reference complete with novel ideas for breakthrough research in medical, biological, chemical, color, material, physical and related allied fields. The ease of use of the handbook is further enhanced by various appendixes provided at the end of the book to conveniently and easily locate the dye as per the reader's need. This is the first book to give the CAS registry numbers, chemical structure, Chemical Abstract (CA) index name, all other chemical names, Merck Index number, chemical/dye class, molecular formula, molecular weight, physical form, solubility, melting point, boiling point, pKa, absorption maxima, emission maxima, molar extinction coefficient, and quantum yield of fluorescent dyes and probes, as well as to provide access to synthetic procedures (lab scale and industrial scale) of dyes and probes in a single source. This user-friendly handbook also features references on safety, toxicity and adverse effects of dyes and probes on humans, animals and the environment, including: acute/chronic toxicity aquatic toxicity carcinogenicity cytotoxicity ecotoxicity genotoxocity hematotoxicity hepatotoxicity immunotoxicity marine toxicity microbial toxicity mutagenicity nephrotoxicity neurotoxicity nucleic acid damage oral toxicity phototoxicity phytotoxicity reproductive toxicity skin toxicity Containing imaging/labeling applications, biological/medical applications and industrial applications, Handbook of Fluorescent Dyes and Probes is a convenient, vital resource for industrial and academic researchers, and a valuable desktop reference for medical professionals, lab supervisors, scientists, chemists, biologists, engineers, physicists, intellectual property professionals, students, and professors. Includes all fluorescent dyes & probes known to date and provides a complete, up-to-date library of information in one reference/handbook Includes more than 300 fluorescent dyes & probes organized alphabetically by the commonly used Chemical Name Provides access to synthesis procedures (lab scale and industrial scale) of fluorescent dyes & probes First book to provide references on safety, toxicity and adverse effects of fluorescent dyes and probes on humans, animals, and the environment User-friendly and convenient resource guide for chemical, biological, medical, and intellectual property professionals in a broad range of disciplines
Продажа nad analogues as chemical probes лучших цены всего мира
Посредством этого сайта магазина - каталога товаров мы очень легко осуществляем продажу nad analogues as chemical probes у одного из интернет-магазинов проверенных фирм. Определитесь с вашими предпочтениями один интернет-магазин, с лучшей ценой продукта. Прочитав рекомендации по продаже nad analogues as chemical probes легко охарактеризовать производителя как превосходную и доступную фирму.